Aggregate tabulations and models

Much can be learned simply from cross-tabulating survey data. For the United States, there are two very useful sources. One, covering all trips, is the National Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS), collected at approximately six-year intervals for the single year 2001 it was subsumed into a broader survey called the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). The other useful source is the journey-to-work portion of the US Census, taken every 10 years. This consists of responses to questions...

Activity patterns and trip chaining

A more fundamental approach to the demand for travel would be to explain the entire structure of decision-making about what activities to undertake in what locations. This idea has proven difficult to translate into workable models that use available data. For example, early theories based on shopping strategies in the face of multiple products and storage costs yielded rich insights but no practical predictive models, whereas ad hoc empirical models were theoretically unsatisfactory and also...

PkVkI qv djVr53

The marginal cost of adding capacity is equated to the resulting marginal user-cost savings from lower congestion. These cost savings are calculated holding flows Vh constant the envelope theorem assures this is correct because we are dealing with a marginal change from a first-best optimal starting point. That is, because marginal benefits and marginal social costs of flows are equalized through optimal pricing according to 5.2 , any indirect marginal benefits or costs of capacity changes via...

Introduction

At the heart of all modern economic activity is trade. People trade labor and ideas for cash, and cash for goods and services firms trade technology, expertise, financial capacity, intermediate goods, administrative functions, and many other things with each other, with individuals, and with governments. All these transactions require communications and most require transportation of goods or people - to work, shopping, tourist sites, meeting locations. Thus it is fair to say that...

Disaggregate models examples

Discrete-choice models have been estimated for nearly every conceivable travel decision, forming a body of research that cannot possibly be reviewed here.36 In some cases, these models have been linked into large simultaneous systems requiring extensive computer simulation. An example is the system of models developed to analyze a proposal for congestion pricing in London Bates et al. 1996 . In this section we present three very modest disaggregate models, each chosen for its compact...

Kenneth A Small and Erik T Verhoef

Taylor amp Francis Group LONDON AND NEW YORK First published 2007 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge This edition published in the Taylor amp Francis e-Library, 2007. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor amp Francis or Routledge's collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor amp Francis Group an informa business 2007 Kenneth A....

Selected symbols and abbreviations

A Exponent in Cobb-Douglas utility function of goods and leisure Parameter in BPR congestion function B Total benefits willingness to pay including actual payments B q Benefit function total willingness to pay function of outputs B t Cumulative queue-exits function of clock time b Parameter exponent in BPR congestion function C Long-run cost when distinction with short-run is relevant Cg Congestion-related part of total cost, including capacity cost Cg Congestion-related part of long-run total...