Calculate profit for each quantity. How much should the firm produce to maximize profit?
b. Calculate marginal revenue and marginal cost for each quantity. Graph them. (Hint: Put the points between whole numbers. For example, the marginal cost between 2 and 3 should be graphed at 2 1/2.) At what quantity do these curves cross? How does this relate to your answer to part (a)?
c. Can you tell whether this firm is in a competitive industry? If so, can you tell whether the industry is in a long-run equilibrium?
7. From The Wall Street Journal (July 23, 1991): "Since peaking in 1976, per capita beef consumption in the United States has fallen by 28.6 percent . . . [and] the size of the U.S. cattle herd has shrunk to a 30-year low."
a. Using firm and industry diagrams, show the short-run effect of declining demand for beef. Label the diagram carefully and write out in words all of the changes you can identify.
b. On a new diagram, show the long-run effect of declining demand for beef. Explain in words.
8. "High prices traditionally cause expansion in an industry, eventually bringing an end to high prices and manufacturers' prosperity." Explain, using appropriate diagrams.
9. Suppose the book-printing industry is competitive and begins in a long-run equilibrium.
a. Draw a diagram describing the typical firm in the industry.
b. Hi-Tech Printing Company invents a new process that sharply reduces the cost of printing books. What happens to Hi-Tech's profits and the price of books in the short run when Hi-Tech's patent prevents other firms from using the new technology?
c. What happens in the long run when the patent expires and other firms are free to use the technology?
10. Many small boats are made of fiberglass, which is derived from crude oil. Suppose that the price of oil rises.
a. Using diagrams, show what happens to the cost curves of an individual boat-making firm and to the market supply curve.
b. What happens to the profits of boat makers in the short run? What happens to the number of boat makers in the long run?
11. Suppose that the U.S. textile industry is competitive, and there is no international trade in textiles. In longrun equilibrium, the price per unit of cloth is $30.
a. Describe the equilibrium using graphs for the entire market and for an individual producer.
Now suppose that textile producers in other countries are willing to sell large quantities of cloth in the United States for only $25 per unit.
b. Assuming that U.S. textile producers have large fixed costs, what is the short-run effect of these imports on the quantity produced by an individual producer? What is the short-run effect on profits? Illustrate your answer with a graph.
c. What is the long-run effect on the number of U.S. firms in the industry?
12. Suppose there are 1,000 hot pretzel stands operating in New York City. Each stand has the usual U-shaped average-total-cost curve. The market demand curve for pretzels slopes downward, and the market for pretzels is in long-run competitive equilibrium.
a. Draw the current equilibrium, using graphs for the entire market and for an individual pretzel stand.
b. Now the city decides to restrict the number of pretzel-stand licenses, reducing the number of stands to only 800. What effect will this action have on the market and on an individual stand that is still operating? Use graphs to illustrate your answer.
c. Suppose that the city decides to charge a license fee for the 800 licenses. How will this affect the number of pretzels sold by an individual stand, and the stand's profit? The city wants to raise as much revenue as possible and also wants to ensure that 800 pretzel stands remain in the city. By how much should the city increase the license fee? Show the answer on your graph.
13. Assume that the gold-mining industry is competitive.
b. Suppose that an increase in jewelry demand induces a surge in the demand for gold. Using your diagrams, show what happens in the short run to the gold market and to each existing gold mine.
c. If the demand for gold remains high, what would happen to the price over time? Specifically, would the new long-run equilibrium price be above, below, or equal to the short-run equilibrium price in part (b)? Is it possible for the new long-run equilibrium price to be above the original long-run equilibrium price? Explain.
14. (This problem is challenging.) The New York Times (July 1, 1994) reported on a Clinton administration proposal to lift the ban on exporting oil from the North Slope of Alaska. According to the article, the administration said that "the chief effect of the ban has been to provide California refiners with crude oil cheaper than oil on the world market. . . . The ban created a subsidy for California refiners that had not been passed on to consumers." Let's use our analysis of firm behavior to analyze these claims. a. Draw the cost curves for a California refiner and for a refiner in another part of the world. Assume that the California refiners have access to inexpensive Alaskan crude oil and that other refiners must buy more expensive crude oil from the Middle East.
b. All of the refiners produce gasoline for the world gasoline market, which has a single price. In the long-run equilibrium, will this price depend on the costs faced by California producers or the costs faced by other producers? Explain. (Hint: California cannot itself supply the entire world market.) Draw new graphs that illustrate the profits earned by a California refiner and another refiner.
c. In this model, is there a subsidy to California refiners? Is it passed on to consumers?
Was this article helpful?