Collective Bargaining And The Nonwhites

It may be felt that, although the power of the white labour unions was abused in the circumstances we have just discussed, collective bargaining remains essential to protect both Whites and non-Whites from exploitation. It is true that, in the extremely rare1 cases in which managements are really in a position to exercise monopsonistic powers as 'monopoly' buyers of labour, 'exploitation' may occur. But in a good society, would not the prevention of this possibility be undertaken by the...

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At the end of the century, the Boer War, with the rights and wrongs of which we are not concerned, brought the Orange Free State and the Transvaal under British sovereignty. At the settlement in 1902, the victors granted self-government to the vanquished, subject to the safeguarding of political rights for non-Afrikaners, which the war had ostensibly been fought to bring about. In 1910, all four colonies, the Cape, Natal, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, were merged into the Union of...

Colour Prejudice And Colour Resentment

The racial problems of the Republic of South Africa are, I believe, incomparably more complex than those of any other country in the world. There is more ethnological and sociological variety wider dispersion in the standards of education, earning ability and money incomes per head and the difficulties which arise in any attempt to design an institutional framework under which peaceful relations can be achieved among the members of this conglomeration appear at first almost insuperable. What...

The Poor Whites

The earlier economic backwardness of the Afrikaners in relation to the comparatively prosperous English-speaking section of the South African population contributed to anti-British resentment. In this Chapter it is proposed to consider briefly the reasons for the persistence of relative poverty among the Afrikaners during this century, and the feelings of injustice which it created. The Poor White problem - mainly the poor Afrikaner problem - appeared to be the product of a familiar phase of...

Job Reservation

IN harmony with the spirit of the 'group areas' policy has been the incorporation of overt 'job reservation' into the Industrial Conciliation Act by amendments introduced in 1956 and 1959. This step has rendered more specific and deliberate the exclusions which had previously been stealthily achieved through the standard rate principle since the inception of the Act in 1924 and quite honestly through the Mines and Works Act of 1926 and the Native Building Workers' Act of 1951. It has tended to...

The Civilised Labour

During the First World War, the white miners' union1 had succeeded in enforcing wage-rate increases many times larger than those obtained by the unorganised Africans. But the position of the latter had in some respects improved because, through the emergency, they had been permitted to undertake semi-skilled work especially as drill-sharpeners. This opportunity for a small proportion of Africans mitigated the increased costs of mining gold, the price of which rose to a premium after the war for...

The First Colour Bar

A wide discrepancy between the earnings of Africans and the earnings of virtually unskilled white overseers seems to have been established as a tradition in the 1880s in the diamond mines. I have suggested that this discrepancy could be partly explained by the market forces of supply and demand. White supervisors were needed, whilst they had better-paid alternatives than the Africans. In so far as the notion of what was a 'fair and proper' remuneration for a white man may have influenced the...