The Foundations Of Evotopia

This book is not one of intellectual history, but occasionally a brief historical digression is in order. It is useful to sketch out some of the past threads of evotopian thinking, in order to place any new developments in their context. Prior to Charles Darwin, we find inspiration for evotopian thought in the writings of Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) and John Stuart Mill (18061873), among others. Both these writers stressed the role of diversity in progressive change. Let us start with...

The Absolutism Of Market Individualism

Never, on this Earth, was the relation of man to man long carried on by Cash-payment alone. If, at any time, a philosophy of Laissez-faire, Competition and Supply-and-demand, start up as the exponent of human relations, expect that it will end soon. Thomas Carlyle, Past and Present 1847 The New Right accepts the economism of classical liberal thought. It thereby ignores, or cannot cope with, that 'non-contractual element in contract' which Durkheim, drawing in fact on conservative ideas, long...

The Emergence And Meaning Of The Term Socialism

The idea of common ownership, of holding property in common, stretches back to the origins of Western civilisation itself. It is found, for instance, in the writings of the Ancient Greeks, in the Bible, in the doctrines of several medieval Christian reformers, and in the Utopia of Thomas More Kumar, 1987 Manuel and Manuel, 1979 . However, in all its diverse meanings, the modern concept of socialism is very much a product of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. Socialism has made strong appeals...

Karl Marx And The Triumph Of Capitalism

1 Although Marx had long adopted the analytical approach of moving from the key characteristics of a historically specific mode of production, it was not until the publication of the Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy in 1859 that the concept of the commodity was located as the starting point in the analysis of capitalism. Note the famous transitional passage in the Grundrisse Marx, 1973b, pp. 100-8 which was probably written in 1857, and the important comments by Nicolaus in his...