Let X be a random variable and let E(X) = p. The distribution, or spread, of the X values around the expected value can be measured by the variance, which is defined as var( X) = oX = E( X — p)2
The positive square root of ooX, is defined as the standard deviation of X. The variance or standard deviation gives an indication of how closely or widely the individual X values are spread around their mean value. The variance defined previously is computed as follows:
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