Matrix subtraction follows the same principle as matrix addition except that C = A — B; that is, we subtract the elements of B from the corresponding elements of A to obtain C, provided A and B are of the same order.
APPENDIX B: RUDIMENTS OF MATRIX ALGEBRA 917
To multiply a matrix A by a scalar X (a real number), we multiply each element of the matrix by X:
For example, if X = 2 and then
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