Definitions of variables:
R = crime rate, number of offenses reported to police per million population Age = number of males of age 14-24 per 1000 population
S = indicator variable for southern states (0 = no, 1 = yes) ED = mean number of years of schooling times 10 for persons age 25 or older. EX0 = 1960 per capita expenditure on police by state and local government EX, = 1959 per capita expenditure on police by state and local government LF = labor force participation rate per 1000 civilian urban males age 14-24 M = number of males per 1000 females N = state population size in hundred thousands NW = number of nonwhites per 1000 population U! = unemployment rate of urban males per 1000 of age 14-24 U2 = unemployment rate of urban males per 1000 of age 35-39 W = median value of transferable goods and assets or family income in tens of dollars X = the number of families per 1000 earnings 1/2 the median income Observation = state (47 states for the year 1960)
Source: W. Vandaele, "Participation in Illegitimate Activities: Erlich Revisted," in A. Blumstein, J. Cohen, and Nagin, D., eds., Deterrence and Incapacitation, National Academy of Sciences, 1978, pp. 270-335.
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