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marginal cost (MC) and average cost (AC) curves of production are typically U-shaped—initially, as output increases both MC and AC decline, but after a certain level of output they both turn upward, again the consequence of the law of diminishing return. This can be seen in Figure 7.3 (see also Figure 7.1). And since the MC and AC curves are derived from the total cost curve, the U-shaped nature of these curves puts some restrictions on the parameters of the total cost curve (7.10.4). As a matter of fact, it can be shown that the parameters of (7.10.4) must satisfy the following restrictions if one is to observe the typical U-shaped short-run marginal and average cost curves:19
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