Software

The real power and use of what the computer can do, however, is largely a function of the software that is installed into these various systems. The most fundamental of the software functions is the operating system OS that runs the computer. Examples of the OS include Windows XP, Windows 2000, Linux, Mac OC, and Unix. These provide different processes through which we operate and work on our computer systems. The software directs the computer to perform very specific tasks such as creating a...

Microeconomics And Macroeconomics

Microeconomics is the study of small economic units such as individual consumers, families, and businesses. It is the study of the individual parts of the economy and how prices are determined and how prices in turn determine the production, distribution, and use of goods and services. Macroeconomics refers to the study of a country's overall economic issues. Although these two disciplines are often addressed separately, they are interrelated, as macroeconomic issues help shape the decisions...

Be a Good Listener

Active listening skills are crucial if you want to be a skilled negotiator. Being a good listener is challenging because you may feel stressed during the negotiation. Additionally, listening requires concentration and patience. Although you may want to interrupt with your comments, try to be patient and concentrate on what is being said. Many people find it difficult to concentrate because they are too busy preparing what they will say next in reaction to what was said. If you do your research,...

Five Structural Factors

In essence, the primary goal of an organizational structure is to coordinate and allocate a firm's resources so that the firm can carry out its plans and achieve its goals and objectives. The fundamentals of organizational structure revolve around five factors the division of labor, departmentalization, the nature of the managerial hierarchy, the managerial span of control, and the amount of centralization or decentralization in the organization. Division of Labor. The division of labor...

Determine Your BATNA

In order to negotiate better, you must determine what your BATNA is prior to negotiating. BATNA, first coined by Fisher and Ury, stands for best alternative to a negotiated agreement. If you are unable to reach an agreement with the other party, what is your next best option Knowing your BATNA helps you to decide at what point the deal the other side is offering you is no longer beneficial to you. Remember, the whole point of negotiating with someone is to get something better than what you...

Autocratic Leadership

This style of leadership is both directive and controlling. The leader will make all decisions without consulting employees and will also dictate employee roles. Micromanaging is a form of autocratic leadership in which upper management controls even the smallest tasks undertaken by subordinates. The autocratic style of leadership limits employee freedom of expression and participation in the decision-making process. It may result in alienating employees from leadership and will not serve to...

Employee Involvement Programs

Employee involvement programs seek to motivate employees by increasing their responsibilities or getting them more involved in decision-making processes. There are several types of employee involvement programs the more basic programs include job enlargement, job rotation, and teamwork. More ambitious programs include open-book management and worker empowerment. Job Enlargement. Job enlargement is a direct way to increase job responsibility. It involves expanding a position and giving an...

Transformational and Transactional Leadership

Two additional styles of leadership worth exploring are transformational and transactional. Both have strong ethical components and philosophical underpinnings. Transformational Leadership. Leaders who have a clear vision and are able to articulate it effectively to others often characterize this style of leadership. Transformational leaders look beyond themselves in order to work for the greater good of everyone. This type of leader will bring others into the decision-making process and will...

Leadership And Motivation

An important role for a leader is motivating employees to do the best job possible. There are many ways a leader can motivate employees, and many of them do not require additional monetary compensation. Sometimes motivation is brought about through creative means. The Container Store, a Dallas-based retailer, offers its employees free yoga classes, a personalized online nutrition diary, and a free monthly chair massage. These techniques help relieve employee stress and make workers feel...

Laissez Faire Leadership

Delegating work works, provided the one delegating works, too. This free-rein form of leadership, if it is to be successful, requires extensive communication by management with employees. It is the style of leadership that makes employees responsible for most of the decisions that are made, and in which they are minimally supervised. Employees are responsible for motivating and managing themselves on a daily basis under this leadership style. Laissez-faire leadership may best be used when...

Mechanistic and Organic Organizational Structures

The five structural factors just discussed give rise to numerous organizational possibilities. Mechanistic and organic structures are two possibilities at opposite ends of the organizational spectrum. They give shape to the concept of the factors of organizational structure. A mechanistic organization is characterized by the following structural factors Degree of work specialization is high. Departmentalization is rigid. Managerial hierarchy has many layers. Decision making is centralized....