# Smart Parenting Guide

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## Natural Numbers Integers and Rational Numbers

Though familiar, such numbers are in reality rather abstract and advanced concepts. Civilization crossed a significant threshold when it grasped the idea that a flock of four sheep and a collection of four stones have something in common, namely fourness. This idea came to be represented by symbols such as the primitive (still used on dominoes or playing cards), the modem 4, and the Roman numeral IV. This notion is grasped again and again as young children develop their mathematical skills.

## Summary and Conclusions

Suppose that you live in a low-income community, and that the government wants to help you by granting you the right to borrow 120 at a subsidized interest rate of 6 percent per annum. State which of the following two strategies you would choose and why (a) Invest the 120 in your family business and obtain a net return of 15 percent per annum, but incur an effort cost equivalent to 16, or (b) deposit the money in a nearby commercial bank that will pay you a yearly rate of 2.5 percent.

## The elements of capitalbased macroeconomics

Loanable funds is a commonly used generic term to refer to both sides of the market that is brought into balance by movements of the interest rate broadly conceived. The supply of loanable funds, which represents the willingness to lend at different interest rates, and the demand for loanable funds, which represents the eagerness to borrow, are shown in Figure 3.1. For use in macroeconomics, two modifications to this straightforward interpretation are needed, both of which are common to macroeconomic theorizing. First, consumer lending is netted out on the supply side of this market. That is, each instance of consumer lending represents saving on the part of the lender and dissaving on the part of the borrower. Net lending, then, is saving in the macroeconomically relevant sense. It is the saving by all income earners made available to the business community to finance investment, to facilitate capital accumulation, to maintain and expand the economy's capital structure. Second,...

## Where economic man dwells1

Personalized interactions, borne of durable associations, also characterize dealings between family members, neighbors, and fellow bureaucrats. Emotionalizing and strategizing are much more likely in these institutional settings than in the marketplace. The setting that is consistent with the spontaneous order problem is that in which people make their decisions independently, meaning that their decisions are not affected by knowledge of or concern for how they might affect others. That setting is not the home. It is not the neighborhood. It is not the firm. It is, for reasons to be given, the marketplace. My point is by now quite obvious. In coming to an understanding of spontaneous order there is considerable methodological usefulness in minimizing the attention one gives to emotionalism and concern for others. However, economicman's usefulness is not just a matter of methodology. He is useful in other respects. We observe two codes of behavior in dealings between people. In...

## The Greatness of the US Is McDonalds and Microsoft

I enjoyed the letter format you chose for today's op-ed column in the Washington Post ( Pay Attention, Kids ), where you implore your children to follow the political debate this election year. If you tell that to your kids, they actually might come around. These companies represent the basis of the capitalist system, wherein companies identify a consumer need, conceive a product or service to satisfy it, and compete with other producers to deliver the best quality at the lowest price. No doubt your kids spend hours in their rooms surfing the Net or hanging out with their friends at McDonald's. If they could somehow be

## Be Confident and Firm but Not Demanding

One way to exude confidence during a negotiation is to practice, practice, practice. For example, you can work on your listening skills next time you get your car fixed at the car shop or negotiate with your spouse about where you want to go on your next vacation. You negotiate every day with your family, friends, and strangers, so you should find ample opportunities to practice.

## Rescuing economic man from the selfish gene

The genes he refers to as rare in the gene pool would seem to be those that, through generations, have been altered in ways suggested above. Genes that have not been so altered remain HIC across individuals even if these individuals are of different immediate parentage, and these genes, in addition to family-ancestral genes, will seek survival. True, the altered genes defined as family-ancestral are more likely to find identical genes in close family members, since relatives are more likely to carry the same altered genes, but even genes that have not been altered will find identical genes in people who are not (as well as people who are) close family members. The probability that one gene finds an identical gene in another person is greater the more closely the two people The strength of this incidental correlation will be weaker if alternative sources of close, continuing association are available. These alternatives are available even if they sometimes are less reliable than is...

## The edge of the jungle Gordon Tullock

A particularly important aspect of the long-term contract would be provision for the old age of members of the ruling group. The discipline of continuous dealings would never tell you not to seize the wealth of an old and feeble man, because he would never be in a position to retaliate. If you wish to assure a reasonably pleasant life in your old age, or if you are badly injured, or, for that matter, to members of your family if you die,6 you would be interested in moving from the discipline of continuous dealings to some method of enforcing agreements, property rights, etc., which is superior to it.

## Example 42 Stock options and managerial incentive

The Walt Disney Corporation was run by family members for several years after the death of the founder, and the family members did a poor job. Profits were dismal, and the managers even used 31 million of the owners' wealth to repurchase the shares of a financier attempting to buy a controlling interest in the company in hopes of being able to turn it around. (They paid 31 million more than the shares were worth on the stock market.) When Michael J. Eisner was hired to run the company in 1984 he was given a bonus of 2 of all profits in excess of a 9 return on equity. Under Eisner's leadership, the return on equity soared to 25 . (It was well below 9 when he was hired.) Over a five-year period, Eisner received about 10 million a year in performance bonuses, a tiny fraction ofwhat he delivered to the company's owners (Milgrom and Roberts, 1992).

## Voucher Plan For Elementary And Secondary Schooling

One simple and effective way to assure parents greater freedom to choose, while at the same time retaining present sources of finance, is a voucher plan. Suppose your child attends a public elementary or secondary school. On the average, countrywide, it cost the taxpayer you and me about 2,000 per year in 1978 for every child enrolled. If you withdraw your child from a public school and send him to a private school, you save taxpayers about 2,000 per year but you get no part of that saving except as it is passed on to all taxpayers, in which case it would amount to at most a few cents off your tax bill. You have to pay private tuition in addition to taxes a strong incentive to keep your child in a public school. Suppose, however, the government said to you If you relieve us of the expense of schooling your child, you will be given a voucher, a piece of paper redeemable for a designated sum of money, if, and only if, it is used to pay the cost of schooling your child at an approved...

In addition, the evidence suggests that intrafamilial processes affect personal agency beliefs during the developmental phase in a person's life. The results of numerous studies into the relationship between parenting practices and children's LOC beliefs present a consistent message parents An individual's socio-economic background is also likely to affect personal agency beliefs. For one thing, social class has a major impact upon parents' values and their beliefs in their ability to influence their children's development, which in turn determine their parenting practices and children's subsequent LOC beliefs. Lower socio-economic status is likely to be associated with external LOC because people with a poorer socio-economic background perceive the opportunity structure open to them to be narrower and because they are more likely to value conformity to external authority (Jessor et al. 1968 Kohn 1969 Kohn and Schooler 1983).

## Why not ask the children

Recent research into what children feel they need most from their parents is most revealing. Researcher and mother Ellen Galinsky asked over i,000 children from a diversity of backgrounds to grade their parents in terms of parenting skills. The most common theme that emerged from this

## Extensive And Intensive Growth

But the earlier Papal Revolution of Pope Gregory the First, which had precipitated that of Gregory VII, also led to a change in the traditional Eurasian family patterns which were based on various forms of 'joint families' and family values. In its quest to weaken the traditional Eurasian family bonds in its race for inheritances the Western Christian church came to support the independence of the young in choosing marriage partners, in setting up their households and entering into contractual rather than affective relationships with the old. They promoted love marriages rather than the arranged marriages common in Eurasia. Friar Lawrence in Romeo and Juliet egging on the young lovers

## The Changing Structure Of Airline Passenger Fares

During the 1950s, the airlines developed a family fare offering a discount as high as 50 percent to family members traveling with the head of the family who was paying full first-class fare. The 1960s saw the family fare extended to coach service and the establishment of other special fares for coach passengers. Among these were youth fares (for persons 12 to 21 years of age), standby fares, and a variety of excursion fares premised on purchase of a round-trip ticket with a minimum and maximum period in which the return coupon could be used. By the late 1960s it was commonplace to find passengers sitting side by side in the coach section receiving the same service, all at different fares.

## Some biological problems

Then what does all this have to do with charity to China At first glance not much, but if we consider the genes they may explain it. First a gene does not think, but it does control to some extent the brains of thinking entities. The obvious example of this is sexual attraction, which we find in many animals with brains in all sizes. The human being and the butterfly are examples. But sexual attraction is not the only thing in which the brain is controlled by genes. I am about to argue that our charitable impulses, from giving things to your children, to making charitable contributions for missionaries attempting to convert the heathen, are influenced by the genes.

## The family and the division of labor

Considering the family as a productive unit, one gains insights into the type and extent of the division of labor within it. As expected, at any point of time, the division of household tasks for the accomplishment of mutually beneficial outputs is determined by the perceived comparative advantages of the various family members. We abstract here from the question of how, and by whom, decisions within the family are made, although clearly this is a relevant determinant of the allocation of tasks. Given a particular decision-making regime, the perception of comparative advantages will be important. The same principles that govern the identification of the gains from trade in an international trade context (or in any market

## The relationship between ethics and dynamic efficiency

For an illustration of the possibility and value of examining personal moral principles in terms of dynamic efficiency, let us consider the behaviour spouses should, with consistent effort, aspire to and maintain, to keep their marriages going and preserve the institution of the family, for their own benefit and especially for that of their children. For example, if a family man begins to give way to a more or less frivolous desire for an attractive, young companion over all else, he could very likely end up divorcing his wife, precisely when she is getting older and the children are nearly grown. If such behaviour becomes widespread, then before women decide to marry and start a family they may very well begin to reflect on the high risk that their husbands may abandon them just as they are wrapping up a period of long years spent raising children, and precisely at a time when their age and abilities put them at a disadvantage in the labour market. As a result, not only will a larger...

## Policy implications of government expenditures in the national income accounts

The problem is that government growth is mistakenly accounted for as real economic growth. Thus, if growth in measured GDP according to national income accounting conventions is a goal of economic policy, one way to accomplish this goal of GDP growth is to increase the size of the public sector. While it should be obvious that shifting child care from home production to government production does not increase anybody's income (although it does transfer resources from taxpayers to daycare workers, who may be the same people in many cases), or that buying more military hardware does not increase aggregate income (although it does transfer resources from taxpayers to military contractors), or that it does not increase anybody's income to hire ten bureaucrats to do the job that one used to do, in all these cases measured GDP will rise. Thus, if a nation judges its economic health by its measured GDP, the inclusion of government expenditures in GDP can have severely distorting effects....

## International Transfers of Wealth

In addition to investments of various kinds, there are remittances from people living in foreign countries back to family members in their countries of origin. In 2001, for example, more than 9 billion in remittances were sent back to Mexico from the United States and more than 23 billion was sent back to Latin America and the Caribbean as a whole. Nor is this a new phenomenon. Back in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, remittance from Chinese immigrants in the United States made the localities from which they had come in China visibly more prosperous than other regions.

## Complexity Information And Ethics

In general, whenever strong commitments to values are expected, the rational calculation of punishments and rewards is regarded as an improper basis for making decisions. Citizens who refrain from treason merely because it is against the law are, by that fact, of questionable loyalty parents who refrain from incest merely because of fear of community reaction are, by that fact, unfit for parenthood.

## How would the Genuine Wealth bank operate

The Genuine Wealth bank would be owned by its members, including households, local businesses and entrepreneurs who live and work in the community. These members would pool their financial assets (savings) in a cooperative social enterprise sharing a common vision of the bank as a financial steward. Like the JAK bank, members would be encouraged to save their work income in the bank, earning points which are redeemable in the future as no-interest loans to themselves, their family members or other members of the community. Money and credit are therefore seen as common assets, as services (mediums of exchange) that facilitate efficient stewardship of the community's assets while encouraging entrepreneurship and meaningful work for all in the community, regardless of their capacity (skills or knowledge) to work.

## The Shadow of Marx and the Creative Destruction of Socialism

But Mises's and Hayek's arguments were largely ignored as a result of counterarguments and historical trends. In the 1930s and 1940s, Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union were heralded as apparent economic success stories. Journalists returned from tours of Russia exclaiming I have been to the future, and it works (Malia 1999, 340). In 1936, Sidney and Beatrice Webb came back with glowing reports of a new civiliZation and the re-making of man, a vibrant nation with full employment, good working conditions, free education, free medical services, child care and maternity benefits, and the widespread availability of museums, theaters, and concert halls. Oskar Lange, a Polish socialist, and Fred M. Taylor, president of the AEA, contended that central planning boards could imitate the market's success. Austrian economist and Harvard professor Joseph Schumpeter chided Mises and Hayek by concluding, Can socialism work Of course it can, adding even more damagingly, The capitalist order tends to...

## Public Choice Theory Revisited

How can a small interest group like egg or milk producers successfully lobby to increase its own income at the expense of society as a whole Because, even though the total cost of the group's programs might be considerable, the cost imposed on each individual taxpayer is small (this is the special-interest effect). Taxpayers are likely to be uninformed about and indifferent to such programs, since they have little at stake. Unless you raise your own chickens to provide your family's egg supply, you probably have no idea how much these programs cost you as an individual taxpayer and consumer and therefore do not object when your member of Parliament

## Genesis of Musical Instruments

The normal pitch difference between the family members is a fourth or fifth, so together they used to cover the whole musically interesting range of pitches. Until now the student has been able to practice at ease without taking note of neighbours or family members. Now is the time, however, to close all doors and windows.

## The family firm marriage

Once people marry, in many ways their individualistic, or market-like, behaviour changes so that it more resembles behaviour within the firm. They are concerned with what Becker (1991) calls 'maximization of household production', which broadly includes not only children, consumption goods and leisure time to enjoy them, but also values like intimacy and love. As with commercial firms, there will be no day-to-day accounting as Ben-Porath (1980) noted, large outstanding balances will be tolerated. As within the firm, specialization will become important (Becker, 1991). The balance between household and labour force participation will change with changes in the spouses' opportunity costs (England and Farkas, 1986) though, as Becker (1991) suggests, women for biological reasons always have the comparative advantage in child rearing and, because child care and other household jobs may be done at the same time, may be the only spouse to work in both the labour force and household...

## Answers To Selected Questions And Problems

Because you know your family member better than a stranger, you know more about the borrower's honesty, propensity for risk taking, and other traits. There is less asymmetric information than with a stranger and less likelihood of an adverse selection problem, with the result that you are more likely to lend to the family member.

## Questions For Review

Suppose the federal government cuts taxes and increases spending, raising the budget deficit to 12 percent of CDP. If nominal CDP is rising 5 percent per year, are such budget deficits sustainable forever Explain. If budget deficits of this size are maintained for 20 years, what is likely to happen to your taxes and your children's taxes in the futuro Can you personally do something today to offset this future effect

## Case Study Discrimination In Sports

It is true that women and men still do not have the same earnings. But I believe that the differential is largely due to continuing gender differences in the priority placed on market work vs. family responsibilities. Until family roles are more equal, women are not likely to have the same pattern of market work and earnings as men. Technology has reduced the burden of housework, but child care remains a responsibility that is harder to shift to the market.

## Limitations of the agency model

In such countries as France and Italy, the issue of corporate governance has yet to come to the fore. Many of the biggest public companies in these countries - from LVMH to Fiat - still have large family shareholdings, family representatives among their senior management, and strong family representation on their boards. In France, it has been claimed that only about one director in five on the boards of public companies is truly independent.

## Financial Liberalization

The major shareholders of domestic commercial banks mostly belonged to a group of families. For example, Bangkok Bank, the largest bank in the country with a market share of 21 per cent, belonged to the Sophonpanich family. The third largest bank with a market share of 13 per cent, the Thai Farmers Bank, belonged to the Lumsum family. The Bank of Ayuthaya, the fifth largest bank with a market share of 8 per cent, belonged to the Ruthanaruk family. There was only one state-owned bank, the Krung Thai Bank, which was the second largest bank in the Kindgom and held a market share of 15 per cent. The fourth largest bank, the Siam Commercial Bank, had a market share of 9 per cent it was crown property. Family-owned banks were generally managed by a group of family members and

## What Causes The Labor Supply Curve To Shift

Changes i n Tastes In 1950, 34 percent of women were employed at paid jobs or looking for work. In 1998, the number had risen to 60 percent. There are, of course, many explanations for this development, but one of them is changing tastes, or attitudes toward work. A generation or two ago, it was the norm for women to stay at home while raising children. Today, family sizes are smaller, and more mothers choose to work. The result is an increase in the supply of labor.

## To Help Prepare For Other Careers

Economics has long been the most popular college major for individuals intending to work in business. But in the last two decades it has also become popular among those planning careers in politics, international relations, law, medicine, engineering, psychology, and other professions. This is for good reason Practitioners in each of these fields often find themselves confronting economic issues. For example, lawyers increasingly face judicial rulings based on the principles of economic efficiency. Doctors will need to understand how new laser technologies or changes in the structure of HMOs will affect their practices. Industrial psychologists need to understand the economic implications of workplace changes they may advocate, such as flexible scheduling or on-site child care.

## The Virtual Economy in Action

No matter where you went or what time it was, your child could see you and talk to you, you could watch a replay of your team's last game, you could browse the latest additions to the library, or you could find the best prices in town on groceries, furniture, clothes whatever you needed.

## Libertarian Socialism 18501945

A frequently voiced contemporary objection to syndicalism was that it privileged producer interests at the expense of consumers. Guild Socialism represented a compromise between the libertarians and the state socialists, on this and other issues. The Guild Socialists intended that consumer and producer interests be given equal weight in the making of economic decisions. The most eloquent defense of Guild Socialism came from the philosopher Bertrand Russell, who agreed with the anarchists that work should be undertaken voluntarily, as an end in itself, and should not be treated only as a means to the acquisition of consumer goods no community where most work is disagreeable can be said to have found a solution of economic problems (Russell, 1920 1918 , p. 193). In a transitional phase it would be necessary to offer material incentives to compensate those workers in unpleasant or monotonous jobs, and also to encourage innovation. Everyone would receive a basic income and free access to...

## Further Considerations

Even though Jones and I have always spoken English and may even have gone to the same graduate school, each of us thinks somewhat differently we each have a different order in which we think and probably a different pace in expressing ideas. Family members use words which have special meanings for them So it is with every person, and that is why intimate association makes communication between people efficient and accurate. If I had known David Ricardo, I would be better able to understand his written words. That would be a help, because to this day the meanings of this theories are much debated.

## The BIG Ideas

As you read Economics Principles and Practices, you will be given help in sorting out all the information you encounter. This textbook organizes economic concepts around Big Ideas. These Big Ideas are the keys that will help you unlock all of the concepts you will study. By recognizing the Big Ideas and how they relate to the different concepts, you will better understand how economics affects you, your family, and your community today and in the future.

## Rationing by Prices

Regardless of what hotel owners charge, a sudden and widespread destruction of housing in a given area means that there may be not nearly enough hotel rooms for all the displaced people to get the kinds of accommodations they would like. If prices had remained at their previous levels after the hurricane, a family of four might well rent two rooms-one for the parents and one for the children. But when hotel prices shoot up well beyond their usual . level, all four family members may crowd into one room, in order to save money, leaving the other room for other people who have likewise lost their homes and are equally in need of shelter. The more stringent scarcity of housing in the wake of a widespread destruction of homes is inherent, even if temporary, and prices merely reflect that underlying reality. If the government were to impose price controls under these conditions, then those who happened to get to the hotels first would take up more space and leave more late comers without a...

## Case Study

What does a perfect business look like For Warren Buffett and his partner Charlie Munger, vice-chairman of Berkshire Hathaway, Inc., it looks a lot like Coca-Cola. To see why, imagine going back in time to 1885, to Atlanta, Georgia, and trying to invent from scratch a nonalcoholic beverage that would make you, your family, and all of your friends rich.

## Aleksei Tikhonov

The scale of the 1953 amnesty made it not so much a political measure as a social and economic one. Like a military demobilization, the amnesty required a strategy and a plan. The three weeks that elapsed between Stalin's death and the amnesty announcement were clearly insufficient to prepare a plan for the large-scale amnesty of 1.5 million prisoners. Presumably, such a plan was waiting in the wings pending Stalin's death. Indeed, the Gulag archives reveal earlier planning within the Gulag system for radical restructuring.2 As far back as 1930, the eventual architect of the Gulag system, G. Yagoda, proposed exile with accompanying family members as a superior alternative to camps. The MVD administration had been trying since the late 1940s to cleanse the camps of most of their inmates. Two actual MVD plans (from 1949 and 1951) called for the conversion of Gulag prisoners into an exile labor force. Both plans were associated with S. S. Mamulov deputy minister of internal affairs from...

## Autocorrelation

Violation of assumption 3 means that the disturbances are correlated, i.e., E(ujuj) ajj 0, for i j, and i,j 1, 2, ,n. Since uj has zero mean, E(ujuj-) cov(uj uj) and this is denoted by ajj. This correlation is more likely to occur in time-series than in cross-section studies. Consider estimating the consumption function of a random sample of households. An unexpected event, like a visit of family members will increase the consumption of this household. However, this

## Stable Distributions

Mandelbrot argued that the total income of any income recipient is obtained by adding incomes from different sources (e.g., family income is obtained as the sum of the incomes of all family members). If all these types of income follow the same type of distribution and one is willing to make an independence assumption, one expects that total income will be adequately approximated by a stable distribution.

## Low Frequency Saving

The model's predictive success is much worse in lower-income countries. One of the often-cited reasons is that the model is designed to describe the behavior of nuclear families, not the complex, multi-generational households that often live and eat together in more traditional economies. Instead of a standard household with two parents and children, we are as likely to see households that combine grandparents, parents, and grandchildren all living under the same roof or in the same compound. So in multigenerational households, as family members age, as some are born and others die, the average age of the household may hold fairly steady over time. Thus the ups and downs of income (followed by retirement) experienced by a typical household head poorly represents the income flowing into the household as a whole. Another reason that the life-cycle model has less bite in impoverished regions is that retirement periods tend to be shorter than in more affluent countries, with older family...

## US Income Inequality

Imagine that you lined up all the families in the economy according to their annual income. I hen you divided the families into five equal groups the bottom fiflh, the second fifth, the middle fifth, the fourth fifth, and the top fifth Table 1 shows the income ranges for each of these groups, as well as for the top 5 percent. You can use this table to find where your family lies in the income distribution.

## Phil Graham

The language of fact and description is very different from the language of command and exhortation, even though the two can spill over into each other in functional terms. This functional spillage can be demonstrated with a simple example. Almost every parent has been confronted with a child who says 'I'm hungry', a clear truth claim. Now the nature of propositions, and what defines them as such in distinction to proposals, is that they are open to argument, whereas proposals are not (Halliday and Martin 1993). The child who says 'I'm hungry' is putting forward a proposition that a parent can argue with. Usual arguments would include 'but you just had lunch . . .' 'you can't possibly be hungry' and so on. However, as most parents understand, when a child says 'I'm hungry' what he or she means is 'Feed me ' What happens here is that the child draws upon social and cultural relationships to turn a proposition (I am hungry) into a proposal (Feed me ) it is, in most cultures, the...

## Statistical Trends

In some countries, especially in the Third World, so much economic activity takes place off the books that official data on national output miss much-if not most-of the goods and services produced in the economy. In all countries, work done domestically and not paid for in wages and salary cooking food, raising children, cleaning the home-goes uncounted. This inaccuracy does not directly affect trends over time if the same percentage of economic activity goes uncounted in one era as in another. In reality, however, domestic economic activities have undergone major changes over time and vary greatly from one society to another. For example, as more women have entered the work force, many of the domestic chores formerly performed by wives and mothers without generating any income statistics are now performed for money by child care centers, home cleaning services and restaurants or pizza-delivery companies. Because money now formally changes hands in the marketplace, rather than...

## The lights go on

That very little is written or taught about how money is created in our modern economies yet it is the most important driver of human behavior. One of my favorite authorities is Vicki Robin's and Joe Dominguez's book Your Money or Your Life which provides an important plain-language approach to understanding money and our relationships with it. The authors remind us we spend much of our life trading our life energy or time in exchange for money. Ironically, however, while time is genuinely real and limited (we will all die), money on the other hand is an illusion in that has no basis in real wealth. Robin and Dominguez offer a simple calculation to determine how many minutes and hours you expend each day, month or year to earn an income this includes adding up the value of unpaid hours spent related to working, including the time spent dressing and getting ready to work, time commuting, time worrying and stressing about deadlines and time recovering from a stressful day and commute...

## The Exitvoice Model

I have estimated a logit equation for (9.6) using the 1990-1991 UK National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles which has a large sample and a wide range of variables. Full results and details are in Cameron (2000b). The NSSAL survey was carried out, by professional market researchers, in the UK in 1990 1. This was a rigorously conducted survey of 18,876 adults of ages from 16 to 59. Technicalities involved in tracking a population in which extra-relationship sexual activity can be estimated resulted in a further reduction in the samples to 4044 for men and 4490 for women. Given that the questions were answered at home, sometimes with family members or partners nearby, it is not surprising that low estimated rates of outsourcing were found. The estimates were 8.93 per cent and 3.94 per cent for men and women. The probabilities of outsourcing were linked to a number of possible determinants. The quickest way to summarize the findings is to indulge in the 'most likely

## Sustaining a Program

Altruism refers to feelings of concern for others beside oneself. It is natural to think that altruism applies to close family members but it may also apply to concern for people generally. Feelings of altruism can also be held with respect to animals, plants and even non-sentient objects.

## Changing families

The firm model for families is necessarily incomplete. It does not, for example, explain the legal and other ties that exist after families are legally dissolved through adoption, emancipation or divorce (Brinig, 1996). Because the love that flows between family members is unconditional and permanent, divorce becomes difficult and frequently painful. What may be left after the law pronounces family relationships ended is akin to the economic concept of a franchise, while what people involved in such transitions may experience is an attempt to return to the market unfettered, again thinking of their relationships contractually. Couples divorce, according to Becker et al. (1978), when the gains from remaining married are outweighed by the anticipated benefits of returning to the single life. Frequently, this occurs when couples have married in relative haste and are therefore surprised by negative traits in each other. Sometimes it occurs even after a more lengthy marriage when one...

## Concluding Remarks

The idea that context affects evaluation is neither new nor controversial. As a young man just out of college, I served for two years as a Peace Corps Volunteer teacher in a small village in Nepal. The house I lived in there had a grass roof that leaked when it rained hard. It was an extremely small house by U.S. standards it had no plumbing and no electricity. If you lived in such a house here, your children would be embarrassed to bring their friends home. Yet never once did I feel embarrassed about living in that house in Nepal, because it was actually a perfectly satisfactory house in that context.

## Measuring Impacts

Pitt et al. (1999) show evidence that these substitution effects may be weak in the case of fertility in Bangladesh, since most microenterprises are based in the home, making it possible to simultaneously raise children and run new businesses without the added burdens that jobs outside the home would entail.

## Merican

The United States restricts the number of immigrants who can enter the country. Millions apply, but only about 675,000 are accepted each year. Traditionally, the relatives of U.S. citizens and people with needed job skills received the highest priority. Family members still get special consideration, but because of the Immigration Acc of 1990, emphasis has shifted toward welcoming those who want to work and produce and contribute as one member of Congress put it. The new policy benefits people with particular skills, talents, or the money to invest in our economy.

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