Organic Farming Manual

Miracle Farm Blueprint

This guide teaches you how to make the best worm farm that money can buy; and you don't have to spend much money to get a really good quality worm farm! While worms may not seem very impressive, you'd be amazed at what these worms can do. If you want to grow your own food, the best soil that you will ever get is soil that worms have thoroughly turned over. No matter what the soil in your area looks like, you will always be able to get the highest quality soil to grow plants in. You will have the most protein-rich, nutritious, and potent soil that you've ever seen. The all-natural soil that is worm-tended is far better than what you will get from organic growers; all that it takes is the process that nature invented. That's really all you need to get the best organic vegetables! Continue reading...

Miracle Farm Blueprint Overview


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My Miracle Farm Blueprint Review

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All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable book so that purchasers of Miracle Farm Blueprint can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this manual contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Inelastic Demand For Agricultural Products

In industrially advanced economies, the price elasticity of demand for agricultural products is low. For farm products in the aggregate, the elasticity coefficient is between .20 and .25. These figures suggest that the prices of agricultural products would have to fall by 40 to 50 percent for consumers to increase their purchases by a mere 10 percent. Consumers apparently put a low value on additional farm output compared with the value they put on additional units of alternative goods.

The Administrative Tradition

The best record of the tradition of training in administrative economics is found in Xenophon's treatise, the Oeconomicus, written in the mid-fourth century B.C. (Pomeroy, 1994). He also draws on the Babylonian and Persian tradition in his biography of Cyrus the Great, the Cyropaedia, that emphasizes the training of Cyrus for administration and military leadership. Xenophon's Hiero contains discussions of the administrative stimulus of private production and technology through public recognition and prizes. His Ways and Means was a treatise on economic development, emphasizing economies of scale, programming, and promotion. The Oeconomicus is a systematic treatment of the organization and administration of the agricultural estate, emphasizing human capital and organizational efficiency (Lowry, 1965 1987, ch. 3). The family farm was the backbone of the economy and booty from military operations was the prime source of surplus for farm and city (Hanson, 1995). The details of many of...

Data Generating Process For The Regressors

It is common to assume that x, is nonstochastic, as it would be in an experimental situation. Here the analyst chooses the values of the regressors and then observes yt. This process might apply, for example, in an agricultural experiment in which y, is yield and x, is fertilizer concentration and water applied. The assumption of nonstochastic regressors at this point would be a mathematical convenience. With it, we could use the results of elementary statistics to obtain our results by treating the vector x, simply as a known constant in the probability distribution of y, . With this simplification, Assumptions A3 and A4 would be made unconditional and the counterparts would now simply state that the probability distribution of e, involves none of the constants in X.

Global Family Portrait

The margin of survival is extraordinarily narrow sometimes it closes entirely. One woman we meet in front of her mud hut has fifteen orphaned grandchildren, as shown in photograph 1. As she begins to explain her situation to us, she first points to the withered crops that have died in the fields next to her hut. Her small plot, perhaps a half hectare (a little more than an acre) in all, would be too small to feed her family even if the rains had been plentiful. The problems of small farm size and drought are compounded by yet another problem the soil nutrients have been depleted so significantly in this part of Malawi that crop yields reach only about one ton of maize per hectare with good rains, compared with three tons per hectare that would be typical of healthy soils.

The Problem Of Scarcity

(b) (1) Land consists of an economy's natural resources, gifts of nature such as minerals, forests, rivers, and agricultural land. Owners of land receive rental income when it is used to produce goods or services. (2) Capital is human-made resources and consists of tools, equipment, machinery, buildings, and trans (a) Goods and services are not abundant and available for the asking they must be produced by employing human, capital, and natural resources. A car is manufactured, for example, by employing labor, by utilizing machines, and by using natural resources such as oil (plastics) and iron and coal (steel). Wheat is grown by farmers who sow seeds in agricultural land with the use of tractors and tillers. A society's production of goods and services is thereby limited by the quantity and quality of its economic resources.

Agricultural potential and climate change

Agricultural sustainability The use of agricultural resources in a way that will at least maintain the living standards of those dependent on agriculture for the indefinite future. It does not mean the use of physical practices that can be continued indefinitely. With the few exceptions of countries with still-unexploited reserves of natural resources, there is no alternative to further intensification of agriculture, until the world population stabilizes in terms of both numbers and demands. The issue faced by many countries is how and where to intensify agriculture without depleting the resource base and degrading the environment.

Specific Factors And The Beginnings Of Trade Theory

To understand the situation, recall that from the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789 until the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, Britain was almost continuously at war with France. This war interfered with Britain's trade Privateers (pirates licensed by foreign governments) raided shipping and the French attempted to impose a blockade on British goods. Since Britain was an exporter of manufactures and an importer of agricultural products, this limitation of trade raised the relative price of food in Britain. The profits of manufacturers suffered, but landowners actually prospered during the long war.

Policymaking and economic instruments

For the period 1860-1958 the increase in carbon dioxide has been mainly attributed to forest clearances and agricultural land use changes, whilst the increase since 1958 is due to the increased use of hydrocarbon based fossil fuels as energy sources.49 Extending the time scale back to 1750 Gorshkov50 has argued that our activities of altering land use has moved the climatic dynamic equilibrium of the planet into an unstable trajectory. Furthermore, he argues that to restore the Earth's climate back to a stable equilibrium we would need to alter our use of the terrestrial land cover and allow some 40 per cent of the land to revert back to native vegetation without any further direct interference from human activities. It should, however, be noted that the growing impact of human activities on ecosystems and the damage to species, as recorded in several major studies51 would suggest that we are increasing our impact on the biosphere. On the basis of the recent evidence it may be...

Government And Price Determination

(b) While market demand for most agricultural commodities is relatively stable over time, market supply is very much influenced by the weather. A drought, for example, decreases supply and pushes up prices, while a bumper crop can severely depress agricultural prices. Acts of nature thereby can result in large increases or decreases in the prices of agricultural commodities. The profitability of farming becomes uncertain, as does the price of food products and the income needed to feed a household. Thus, the reasons for agricultural price supports (price floors) are (1) to stabilize farmer incomes and encourage farmers to continue farming whether there are bumper crops or droughts (2) to provide a more steady flow of agricultural products at relatively stable prices and (3) to stabilize the amount of income that households need to spend on food.

Factors That Influence Supply

For some products, especially agricultural products, weather can play an important role in determining supply. Temperature, rainfall, and wind all influence the quantity that can be supplied. Heavy rainfall in early spring, for example, can delay or prevent the planting of crops, significantly limiting supply. Abundant rain during the growing season can greatly increase the available supply at harvest time. An early freeze that prevents full maturation or heavy snow that limits harvesting activity both reduce the supply of agricultural products.

The birth of economic thought in Italy Antonio Serra79

The economic prosperity of a country, Serra explained, depends on 'own accidents', i.e. original characteristics specific to each country, and 'common accidents', or in other words more or less favourable circumstances that may be reproduced anywhere. Among the former, Serra mentioned 'abundance of materials', i.e. endowment of natural wealth, particularly fertile lands (Serra commonly utilised the term 'robbe', materials, for agricultural products), and 'the site', namely localisation 'with respect of other kingdoms and other parts of the world'. There are four 'common accidents' 'quantity of manufactures, quality of people, large amount of trade and capability of those in power'. In other terms manufacturing production, moral qualities and professional skills of the population, extent of trade (especially international transit trade), and politico-institutional system, the latter being the most important of the The second part of the Breve trattato was the longest of the three, and...

Technological Reversal

What if, as often happens in rural Africa, the children lose their mother and father to HIV AIDS The oldest child takes charge, but has not yet had time to master proper farming techniques. The next crop fails, and the children must depend on other households in the village. The family income has declined to zero because the level of technological knowledge has actually declined. Technological know-how is not automatically inherited. Each new generation must learn technological expertise.

New York University and University of Witwatersrand South Africa

(e.g., in the markets for agricultural products and for fashion goods), expectations play a prominent part. But it is of some significance that whatever scope there is for the expression of expectations in such markets is in general commensurate with what scope there is for the holding and variability of commodity stocks. In a pure flow market, in which no stocks can be held, expectations can find little expression, except in consumers' decisions to defer purchases. In product markets in general, in which both flows and stocks are traded, the influence of expectations is proportionate to the share of stock transactions in total transactions.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission G2 H1

Common access resources (Q0) Jointly owned natural resources, e.g. a piece of agricultural land open to all adjoining a town. The major departure from the principle of common access occurred in Great Britain from the thirteenth century onwards when common land was enclosed into private holdings. been very costly as overproduction has led to at least 60 per cent of the agricultural budget being spent on disposing of surpluses. Temporary bans on production and the giving of surpluses to charities are used from time to time. Mansholt in Agriculture 1980 (published 1968) set out a ten-year plan for restructuring European agriculture, including the retiring of farmers and the concentration of agricultural production into larger and more efficient units. The plan achieved little as it met with national resistance, especially for threatening the existence of small family farms. This policy has reduced European Community imports from the rest of the world and insulated community domestic...

Argentinas Break with the Past

The interwar years were difficult for Argentina, as they were for all resource-exporting countries. The prices of agricultural products were low in the 1920s and crashed in the 1930s. And the situation was made worse by the debt run up in happier years. In effect, Argentina was like a farmer who borrowed heavily when times were good, and finds himself painfully squeezed between falling prices and fixed loan payments. Still, Argentina did not do as badly as one might have expected during the Depression. Its government proved less doctrinaire than those of advanced countries determined to defend the monetary proprieties at all costs. Thanks to a devalued peso, controls on capital flight, and a moratorium on debt repayment, Argentina was actually able to achieve a reasonably strong recovery after 1932 indeed, by 1934 Europeans were once again emigrating to Argentina, because they had a better prospect of finding jobs there than at home.

Context Within the Patent Law Economics Literature

29 Patents give only a right to exclude use of whatever product or process is covered by the patent's claim or claims. Thus, for example, patents do not interfere with other governmental efforts to restrict use, such as to mitigate environmental impact. See F. Scott Kieff, Patents for Environmentalists, 9 Wash. U.J.L. & Pol'y 307, 308 (2002) (Invited symposium piece for National Association of Environmental Law Societies annual meeting entitled Sustainable Agriculture Food for the Future, held March 15-17, 2002, at Washington University School of Law) (citing 35 U.S.C. 154 (a) (1994) (Every patent shall contain . . . a grant to the patentee . . . of the right to exclude others.)).

Natural prices and market prices

46 Following similar lines, and showing how relevant the problem of measurement in spatial and intertemporal comparisons was to Smithian analysis, was the proposal to take corn as standard of measure cf. Smith 1776, pp. 55-6. Sylos Labini 1976, illustrating the proposal, remarks that in Smith's opinion the production of corn is characterised by relative costs more or less stable over time, unlike, on the one hand, other agricultural products, characterised by increasing costs, and, on the other hand, manufactures, characterised by decreasing costs.

Physical Geography and Human Ecology

How are ecosystem functions changing, and perhaps degrading, over time Is deforestation threatening the functioning of ecosystems (for example, by exacerbating flooding and land degradation) and the livelihoods of the poor (for example, by exhausting the supplies of fuel wood) Is the loss of biodiversity threatening ecosystem functions (for example, by reducing the pollination of agricultural products) Are invasive species affecting the fertility of the land and fisheries Is the introduction of toxins into the environment threatening the air and drinking water

Responding to the tradedistorting policies of others

3.24 Although average tariffs have fallen in recent years, the use of anti-dumping has tended to rise. In industrial economies, some anti-dumping duties are seven to ten times higher than average most favoured nation (MFN16) tariffs. For example, in the EU, the average MFN tariff for non-agricultural products is 4 per cent, yet anti-dumping duties averaged 23 per cent in 2001. A number of products, mostly from developing or emerging market countries, are subject to duties above 50 per cent, including certain iron and steel products from Ukraine, Poland, Mexico, China, India and Malaysia silicon carbide from China and PET film from India.17 In the US, the average non-agricultural MFN tariff is 3.3 per cent, yet historically anti-dumping duties have been much higher, averaging nearly 30 per cent from 1980 to 1993.18 In emerging markets such as Argentina, Mexico and Peru, anti-dumping duties can be even higher -sometimes in excess of 300 per cent.19

Perfectly Elastic Demand

We are not saying that market demand is perfectly elastic in a competitive market. Market demand graphs are the usual downsloping curve, as a glance ahead at Figure 9-7(b) will reveal. In fact, the total-demand curves for most agricultural products are quite inelastic, even though agriculture is the most competitive industry in the Canadian economy. An entire industry (all firms producing a particular product) can affect price by changing industry output. For example, all firms, acting independently but simultaneously, can increase price by reducing output, but the individual firm cannot do that. So the demand schedule faced by the individual firm in a purely competitive industry is perfectly elastic at the market price, as shown in Figure 9-1.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade F1

Most disputes between members have been solved, with the exception of the problem of the subsidization of agricultural products. But it can be argued that the continued existence of voluntary export restraints and deals such as market sharing have retained protection in a modern guise.

Factors of production

Land is really a combination of two different factors. First, there is the area of land that is needed to produce the good. This may be agricultural land, factory area, shop space, warehouse space or office space. Second, land relates to all natural resources, that is anything that comes from the surface of the land, underneath it or on top of it. Thus we include minerals, crops, wood, and even water and air, though it may seem strange to refer to these as land.

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

During the 1920s, commercial policy in the Soviet Union had been the subject of a great debate under the New Economic Plan, between the Right that advocated expansion of agriculture, and of other traditional exports, plus domestic production of manufactured consumer goods to provide incentives for farmers, and the Left that favoured development of domestic heavy industry and the relative neglect of agriculture. Under the proposals of the Right, exports of agricultural products would be expanded to obtain imports of machinery, metals, raw materials, and exotic foodstuffs such as coffee and tea. This was the trade-dependent strategy. The Left, on the other hand, sought to increase trade in order to achieve autarky as rapidly

Economic mans escape from malthuss population trap

Specialization in productive activities also became important during this period. This provided job opportunities away from home and it brought large numbers of laborers together in urban areas, many performing similar tasks. Where before, much labor was employed on the family farm or in artisan-like tasks in dispersed villages, it could now be employed in mills and factories where large numbers of persons were linked together in the performance or the similar kinds of work. Employment distant from the farm and village of one's birth loosened the hold parents had held over income earned by children and young adults. Specialization made it easier for laborers to unite in common cause. The nuclear family, now that it could more reliably hold acquired wealth, would be inclined to make efforts to acquire more of it. It could do this in two ways, through work done by parents and work done by sons and daughters. Children, including here young adults, could acquire wealth for the family but...

Of the Chief Causes of the Decay of Trade in England and Fall of the Rents of Land

The seeming Prejudice from such a Law, is, It will lessen the Revenue of those who live upon Interest But this will not be a General Prejudice for many of those Persons have Land as well as Mony, and will get as much by the Rise of one, as by the Fall of the other. Besides, many of them, are Persons that live Thriftily, and much within the Compass of their Estates and therefore, will not want it, but in Opinion. They have had a long Time, the Advantage of the Borrower for the Land yielding but 4 l. per Cent. and the Interest being at 6 l. per Cent. a new Debt is every Year contracted of 2 l. per Cent. more than the Value of the Debt in Land will pay, which hath Devoured many a good Farm and eat up the Estates of many of the Ancient Gentry of England.

Value and Distribution Historical Origin Analytical I

Now, you mustn't think that all this rise in price of wheat was due to the particular circumstance of the import of corn being cut off from abroad. As we shall see next term, there was an inflation going on, and, needless to say, agricultural products were subject to inflation equally with other goods. But the shutting off of imports of corn by the war played its part, and as a

Box 81 Tariff bindings and applied tariffs

Quantitative restrictions to tariffs and guaranteed at least as much market access as existed prior to the agreement this gave rise to the tariff rate quotas discussed in Chapter 5. Tariffs on tropical agricultural products, which largely come from developing countries, were cut by 40 percent.

Land Rent and Land

Von Thunen's idea is, by now, thoroughly familiar to almost all economistsalthough even this analysis is neglected in the principles textbooks. He envisaged an agricultural plain supplying a variety of products to an isolated central city and he realized that one could think of the simultaneous determination of a land rent gradient declining from the center to an outer limit of cultivation, and of a series of rings in which different crops would be cultivated and or different farming methods adopted. Thus the high-rent land near the center would be reserved for crops with high costs of transportation and or crops yielding high value per acre the outermost ring would consist of either land-intensive or cheaply transported crops.

The Statistical Approach to Demand Estimation

Does curve D (given by the equation Q 28.7 - 0.98F) really represent the demand for the product The answer is yes, but only if no important factors other than product price affect demand. But in Table 4.5, we have included data for one omitted variable-the average income of purchasers of the product. Note that income (I) has increased twice during the study, suggesting that the demand for agricultural products has shifted twice. Thus, demand curves di, di, and ds in Figure 4.16 give a more likely description of demand. This demand relationship would be described algebraically as

Agriculture industry and services

As was shown on p. 141, farmers were in a very favourable position to penetrate domestic and foreign markets, and they were hardly curtailed by domestic governmental control. Laissez-faire principles were still predominant among policy makers, even in wartime. Prices of agricultural products soared. The development of agricultural exports is mirrored in the output figures in table 5.6. During the first years of the war there was an increase in production, with a decline during 1916. At the end of the war gross production in constant prices of arable production and horticulture was close to the 1913 level. Only the output of livestock had declined sharply, due to a shortage of fodder.

Intergenerational distribution of income D3

Inter-industry trade (F1) Trade in different goods and services between different industries, e.g. the exchange of agricultural products for machines. Trade of this kind occurs most often between economies at different stages of development, especially between countries of the first and third worlds. Increasingly trade between developed countries, e.g. within the OECD, has become intra-in-dustry trade. Within a national economy, inter-industry trade flows are shown in an

Research And Development

The U.S. government has long played a role in the creation and dissemination of technological knowledge. A century ago, the government sponsored research about farming methods and advised farmers how best to use their land. More recently, the U.S. government has, through the Air Force and NASA, supported aerospace research as a result, the United States is a leading maker of rockets and planes. The government continues to encourage advances in knowledge with research grants from the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health and with tax breaks for firms engaging in research and development.

The late arrival of capitalism

Although farming would eventually allow people to survive with an immobile lifestyle, the earliest farmers, like hunter-gatherers, could not long remain in one location because land fertility diminished quickly. After a year or two of farming a plot of land, people would need to abandon it in favor of virgin land. Slash-and-burn technology was used to clear forestland. The food produced on any one farm probably did not exceed by much the needs of those who did the farming. Technical change, including new strategies for using land, ultimately changed this, but very slowly. The earliest use of a hand-drawn plough that has been discovered dates this tool at about four thousand years ago. Irrigation ditches make their appearance five hundred years later. Three-field farming systems emerged much later. This involved rotation of different sections of a farm, in which one section is used to graze stock, which adds natural fertilizer to the soil while it is being grazed. A second section is...

Finding genuine wealth in Leduc Alberta

The city is part of the larger Alberta's International Region (which includes Leduc County, some of the most fertile agricultural land in the province comprising 645,933 acres of beautiful aspen parkland and prairie landscape) with a population of roughly 40,000 people in all. It is home not only to productive farms but to the Nisku Industrial Business Park, western Canada's largest business and industrial park with over 400 companies employing more than 6,000 highly skilled trades and professional workers who are benefiting from the billions of dollars being invested in Alberta's oilsands development north in Fort McMurray. The Edmonton International Airport is also a key entity in this economically prosperous region. My GDP estimates suggest that Leduc enjoys the third-highest GDP per capita in the world, after Luxembourg and Bermuda Abundant, fertile agricultural land that surrounds the city, as part of Leduc County

Selected References

Hendrix, Martin K. Van Ittersum, et al. Generation and Presentation of Nearly Optimal Solutions for Mixed-Integer Linear Programming, Applied to a Case in Farming System Design. European Journal of Operational Research 132 (July 2001) 425-438.

Product Standards and Free Trade

The specification of product performance standards, such as those governing automobile emissions, industrial effluents, energy consumption, or size and weight limitations on agricultural products, can act as more subtle, but equally damaging, impediments to free trade. Product design standards that differ in ways that make selling The health of animals and plants has also earned the attention of the advocates of protection. Imports of agricultural products can be barred outright or made more costly by mandatory testing on the grounds that they may have, or may be imagined to have, diseases (as with British beef) or parasites that can spread to domestic plants and animals. Regulations that restrict agricultural imports have also been used by various special-interest groups to promote other goals, such as animal rights or the eradication of the anthrax bacterium that causes mad cow disease.

Interest Groups Logrolling and Protection

On imported automobiles or agricultural products. Because the beneficiaries of protection are concentrated and small in number, and the cost of the tariff or quota is widely diffused among consumers of the product and the taxpayers (who pay for the administration), one might expect such efforts would be politically successful.

Mutation and Exchange Rate Dynamics

Our analysis of the short-run effects of monetary changes assumed that a country's price level, unlike its exchange rate, does not jump immediately. This assumption cannot be exactly correct, because many commodities, such as agricultural products, are traded in markets where prices adjust sharply every day as supply or demand conditions shift. In addition, exchange rate changes themselves may affect the prices of some tradable goods and services that enter into the commodity basket defining the price level.

Leducs ecological footprint

Yet Leduc is blessed with abundant, highly productive, arable agricultural land. There are an estimated 240,489 acres of prime agricultural farmland suitable for growing food in Leduc County this is roughly 37 of the total area of Alberta's International Region of 661,209 acres. Despite this wealth of agricultural land suitable for growing nutritious, organic food for local markets in Leduc and Edmonton, there seems to be little appreciation of the land's potential as an asset and opportunity. There is no formal inventory of the amount of food sold in Leduc and other communities in the region that is being produced or grown locally. Local food production would provide local food security, self-sufficiency and food sustainability. As citizens eat more locally produced food, they become less dependent on external inputs and they reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions related to transporting food long distances. Food safety increases because farmers can communicate more directly...

Environmental impact assessment EIA

Stocks of natural assets are also responsible for providing natural renewable inputs to production such as timber and agricultural products. Environmental resources include stocks of exhaustible mineral resources. These resources perform many functions including the provision of raw materials for production, and the generation of energy. (Perman et al, 1996.) See also natural resources.

Agricultural Statistics

Agriculture's contribution to gross national product has declined to a relatively small share. Gross farm product and net farm income now stand at only about 4-5 percent of the corresponding national aggregates.1 But changes in farm conditions continue to exert a strong influence on economic developments in particular sectors of the nonfarm economy. Agriculture is a great user of certain kinds of resources and is a major contributor to commodity production, especially food processing and textiles. Developments in this area affect important economic variables such as consumer prices, Federal budget estimates, and U.S. merchandise exports.2 The portion of the total Federal budget spent on agriculture and agricultural resources in 1960 was approximately 6 percent, about two-thirds of which was for price supports and other programs to stabilize farm prices and farm income. The Federal Government assumed an early responsibility for the development and transmission of new agricultural...

X1l Agricultural Statistics

The data obtained from the various censuses of agriculture are not strictly comparable for all items. For example, differences from one census to another in the time of enumeration, the wording of the questions, and the definition of a farm cause some lack of comparability. The census definition of a farm has changed. For the 1959 Census, the definition was based primarily on a combination of acres in the place and the estimated value of agricultural products sold. Places of less than 10 acres in 1959 were counted as farms if the estimated sales of agricultural products for the year amounted to at least 250. In both the 1950 and 1954 censuses, places of 3 or more acres were counted as farms if the annual value of agricultural products, whether for home use or for sale but exclusive of home-garden products, amounted to 150 or more. The decrease in the number of farms in 1959, as compared with all prior censuses, resulted partly from the change in farm definition. The fact that sales of...

Exhaustible resources

The process of eutrophication is accelerated by the introduction of nutrients into water by humans. The main processes by which humans introduce nutrients to water are in the disposal of sewage and the leaching of animal slurry and chemical fertilizers from agricultural land. Thus, eutrophication tends to be a problem in industrialized countries and those with high concentrations of arable agriculture. An area in which the effects of eutrophication are well documented is England's Norfolk Broads, where many of the lakes are now virtually dead.

Institutions And Economic Change

Studying the comparative history of agricultural performance in India and China identifies a common pattern in the interaction of institutional structures and economic change. In both economies there was some surplus over subsistence, but this was not used to improve agricultural productivity enough to cope with population increases. Recent estimates suggest that per capita food-grain availability in the 1930s was between 417 and 446 grams for India (falling to 395 grams in the early 1950s), and between 281 and 307 grams in China, with grain productivity levels in both countries static over the first half of the twentieth century as a whole (Heston 1984 Table 4.6 Chaudhuri 1978 Table 38 Xu 1992 129).4 Capital was often invested to ensure social status and political power, rather than directly in raising labour productivity. This was done to overcome uncertainty, rather than as part of an inherently exploitative feudal social structure, or an inappropriate 'traditional' culture....

Competitive Strategy in Imperfectly Competitive Markets

Rather than consider simply what is, effective managers must contemplate what might be. This is especially true when seeking to develop an effective competitive strategy. An effective competitive strategy in imperfectly competitive markets must be founded on the firm's competitive advantage. A competitive advantage is a unique or rare ability to create, distribute, or service products valued by customers. It is the business-world analog to what economists call comparative advantage, or when one nation or region of the country is better suited to the production of one product than to the production of some other product. For example, when compared with the United States and Canada, Mexico enjoys a relative abundance of raw materials and cheap labor. As such, Mexico is in a relatively good position to export agricultural products, oil, and finished goods that require unskilled labor to the U.S. and Canadian market. At the same time, the United States and Canada enjoy a relative...

Technological heterogeneity at higher aggregation levels

Moreover, the technological heterogeneity we are concerned with is not only confined to the technological performance of individual actors. It is also applicable to higher levels of aggregation such as the sectoral, the regional or the national level. By way of aggregation, of course, any sublevel heterogeneity gets covered and only some - here no matter how defined - average characterizes the higher-level unit. Despite the inevitable loss of information involved here, we nevertheless expect considerable and relevant heterogeneity in technological performance of sectors, regions or economies with respect to the product and quality range produced (for example, agricultural products, Germany compared to India) and or the kind and degree of certain production techniques employed (for example, cotton production, United States compared to Pakistan). Accordingly, what we mean by locally applied technologies does - with a loss of specific description - also apply in a more aggregate sense to...

Social wellbeing and democratic government

During the 1970s, the economist Peter Bauer frequently wrote that if governments in today's poor countries had been diligent at what they are supposed to do - protect citizens from external threat by diplomacy, enforce the rule of law, provide public infrastructure (durable roads ports reliable administration access to potable water and power), and enable markets to operate unhindered - they would have had no time nor resources left to mishandle their economies by interfering with trade, subsidizing favoured industries, procuring agricultural products from farmers at administered prices, and installing public industries that turned into white elephants. Bauer's was something of a lone voice among development economists and although his list of government responsibilities was incomplete, by drawing attention to them he showed other development experts that economics has much to say about governance.

Production Interrelations

Production interrelations are sometimes so strong that the degree of jointness in production is relatively constant. For example, many agricultural products are jointly produced in a fixed ratio. Wheat and straw, beef and hides, milk and butter are all produced in relatively fixed proportions. In mining, gold and copper, silver and lead, and other precious metals and minerals are often produced jointly in fixed proportions. Appropriate pricing and production decisions are possible only when such interrelations are accurately reflected.

Establishing A Liberal Regime In The Former Communist Economy

The distorted world of the Soviet economy is best characterized by the gigantomania of the Stalinist system. In the 1930s the farming system was colonized in collectivization and through a practice of internal imperialism an industrialization drive was financed. On the backs of the peasant community industrial cities were built. Giant enterprise monopolies, in the strictest sense of establishing single producers of a particular good for the entire country, were created under the influence of the Marxian illusion about the infinite efficiency gains of economies of scale in order to industrialize the 'backward' Soviet economy. This industrialization drive left its permanent stamp on the industrial structure of the Soviet system and is evident to this day throughout the entire economy. It was estimated by Gosnab in 1990 that 80 per cent of the volume of output in the machine-building industry was manufactured by monopolists, and that 77 per cent of the enterprises in machinebuilding were...

The Political Economy of Exchange Rate Regimes Conflict over Americas Monetary Standard During the 1890s

World gold supplies had increased sharply after the 1849 discoveries in California, but the 1879 return of the dollar to gold at the pre-Civil War parity required deflation in the United States. Furthermore, a global shortage of gold generated continuing downward pressure on price levels long after the American restoration of gold. By 1896, the U.S. price level was about 40 percent below its 1869 level. Economic distress was widespread and became especially severe after a banking panic in 1893. Farmers, who saw the prices of agricultural products plummet more quickly even than the general price level, were especially hard hit.

Business Week newsclip

Like other rural residents of southern Mississippi, Jamie Lucenberg, 35, faced a huge cleanup job . . . in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. He needed a tractor fast to clear debris and trees from his 17-acre family farm, just 16 miles north of devastated Biloxi. . . . But rather than buy an American-made John Deere or New Holland, brands he grew up with, Lucenberg chose a shiny red Mahindra 5500 made by India's Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. . . .

How Government Influences Business

For example, local telephone service monopolies are protected by a web of local and federal regulation that gives rise to above-normal rates of return while providing access to below-market financing. Franchises that confer the right to offer cellular telephone service in a major metropolitan area are literally worth millions of dollars and can be awarded in the United States only by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The federal government also spends hundreds of millions of dollars per year to maintain artificially high price supports for selected agricultural products such as milk and grain, but not chicken and pork. Careful study of the motivation and methods of such regulation is essential to the study of managerial economics because of regulation's key role in shaping the managerial decision-making process.

The Marketing Cooperatives of the Farmers and the Consumers Cooperatives

However, it is impossible to look upon the farmers' cooperatives as an isolated phenomenon and not to notice that they are merely one device in a complex system of farm policies and political activities of the farmers' organizations. As a pressure group, the organized farmers aim at enhancing the prices of agricultural products. In the plans for the realization of this goal an important role is assigned to the marketing cooperatives. They are a cog in a political machine constructed for the raising of the price of food, an objective radically opposed to that of the The consumers' cooperatives make light of this contradiction by pointing out that both branches of the cooperative movement agree in their eagerness to eliminate superfluous middleman. Thus, it will be possible to raise the price the farmer receives for his product and at the same time to lower the price the consumer must expend for its purchase. The plea is lame. First, it is not true that the elimination of the private...

Regulation Cost Sharing Example

Now assume that reducing herbicide usage increases the amount of tillage needed to keep weed growth controlled and causes the yield per acre to drop, resulting in a 25 percent increase in the marginal costs of corn production. For individual farmers, the effect on marginal costs is reflected as

The Fallacy Of Composition

Automobiles, trucks, and tractors displaced horses from their historically large role in transportation and farming in twentieth century America, thereby freeing up all the resources required to feed and maintain vast numbers of horses. Workers were also displaced from agriculture as farming methods became more efficient. One of the key factors in the growth of Those who lament the passing of the family farm often see no connection between that and the greater outpouring of goods and services from industry and commerce that created a rising standard of living for millions of people. Nothing is easier for the media or for politicians than to present human interest stories about someone whose family has been farming for generations and who has now been forced out of the kind of life they knew and loved by the impersonal economic forces of the marketplace. What is forgotten is that these impersonal forces represent benefits to consumers who are just as much persons as the producers who...

Box 172 The success of Mexicos 19946 adjustment program

In many developing countries the tradables nontradables distinction exists between the rural and urban sectors. Rural areas in such countries typically produce agricultural products that are exported (coffee, tea, cocoa, jute, etc.) and food products that compete with imports. In addition, export-oriented mineral extractive industries are generally located in rural areas. In contrast, urban areas typically have a far heavier concentration of nontradables. Government, banking, insurance, and a range of other urban service industries are usually nontradables. Because manufacturing industries are often highly protected by tariffs and

An Example Of An Antirentseeking Argument

The original arguments for this program (other than that it would make the egg producers wealthy), were that they would stabilize prices and protect the 'family farm'. They have stabilized prices. If you compare prices in British Columbia to those in Washington State, which has roughly the same conditions, it is clear they fluctuate more in Washington State. However, they have stabilized prices primarily by preventing the falls in price that periodically cause so much distress for producers of eggs in Washington. Whether this particular kind of stability is admired by the housewife, as opposed to the egg producer, is not pellucidly clear. As for protecting the 'family farmer,' I doubt that these enterprises really should be referred to as family farms, but it is true that there is some evidence that the average size is possibly slightly suboptimal in British Columbia. This may immediately raise a question in your mind. How do I know that better information is likely to cause the end...

Adam Smith the division of labour

Smith, 1776 1976 , Book 2, Chapter 5). The latter two types of investments are motivated by the need to extend the market, or the so-called 'vent for surplus' argument' (see Myint, 1977) in such a way that the productive potentialities of the division of labour are not constrained by lack of effectual demand. One is reminded of the recent development phenomena particularly in East Asia. For sure, Smith is no advocate of planning, but his view of the 'natural order' of investments is a very convenient and efficient substitute for some well-known policies which over the years have been largely used to support and to direct the process of development. These are policies which emphasize the role of infrastructures and that of an efficient and modern agriculture they are also policies designed to favour the manufacturing sector. Many modern development theories suggest that it is worth investing where the yield is higher, that is to say in the sectors that are more productive than others...

Crossing disciplinary boundaries

Of resources seem to be well coordinated. Corn and other agricultural products are planted and harvested by many such people, none of whom coordinate their production plans with others. Their products are used by a multitude of potential purchasers, none of whom coordinate their purchasing plans. Furthermore, producers, as a group, do not communicate with purchasers, as a group. Yet, the quantities of these products brought to market are in approximate agreement with quantities that users of these products desire to secure. Shortages and surpluses of goods are generally very small percentages of total outputs. How does this happen What are the social consequences for the prices and quantities that make this happen Much of the work of biologists during the post-Darwin history of their discipline has been guided by the speciation puzzle. This is to explain the multiplicity of life forms and evidence of their apparent modification through time. There is no obvious similarity between this...

Technology And Supply Increases

A rapid rate of technological advance has significantly increased the supply of agricultural products. This technological progress has many roots the mechanization of farms, improved techniques of land management, soil conservation, irrigation, development of hybrid crops, availability of improved fertilizers and insecticides, polymer coated seeds, and improvements in breeding and care of livestock. The amount of capital used per farm worker increased 15 times between 19 0 and 1980, permitting a fivefold increase in the amount of land cultivated per farmer. The simplest measure of these advances is the increasing number of people a single farmer's output will support. In 1820 each farm worker produced enough food and fibre to support four people by 1947, that number had risen to about 1 . By 2000 each farm produced enough to support 120 people. Unquestionably, the physical volume of farm output per unit of farm labour in agriculture has risen spectacularly. Over the last 50 years,...

Graphical Portrayal

The combination of an inelastic and slowly increasing demand for agricultural products with a rapidly increasing supply puts strong downward pressure on farm prices and income. Figure 20- shows a large increase in agricultural supply accompanied by a very modest increase in demand. Because of the inelasticity of demand, those modest shifts result in a sharp decline in farm prices, accompanied by a relatively small increase in output, so farm income declines. On the graph, we see that farm income before the increases in demand and supply (measured by rectangle 0P1aQ1) exceeds farm income after those increases (0P2bQ2). Because of an inelastic demand for farm products, an increase in supply of such products relative to demand creates a persistent downward pressure on farm income.

Economics of Farm Poucy

The Canadian government has subsidized agriculture since the 19 0s with a farm program that includes (1) support for farm prices, income, and output (2) soil and water conservation ( ) agricultural research (4) farm credit (5) crop insurance and (6) subsidized sale of farm products in world markets. However, the typical farmer and the average politician both have viewed the farm program as primarily a program to prop up prices and income, and it is this price-support aspect of farm policy that we will explore. Between 1990 and 1999, Canadian farmers received an average of over 1 billion of subsidies each year. As indicated in Global Perspective 20.2, farm subsidies are common in many nations. The family farm is a fundamental Canadian institution and should be nurtured as a way of life.

Historical Background

During the Great Depression of the 19 0s, many farmers believed they were no match for concentrated agribusiness. The general belief was that the small farmer faced low offer-to-buy prices from processors, and farmers could not successfully withhold their produce to force up the price. The political pressure from farmers led to the passing of the Natural Products Marketing Act in 19 4, which set up the Federal Marketing Board. This board could delegate its power to local producers' boards, and its most important power was controlling sales of agricultural products.

Business and the Market

But business leaders and organizations have proven equally willing to seek government intervention to keep out foreign competition, bail out failing corporations and banks, and receive billions of dollars in agricultural subsidies, ostensibly for the sake of saving family farms, but in reality going disproportionately to large agricultural corporations. As noted in earlier chapters, the efficient uses of scarce resources by the economy as a whole depends on a system that features both profits and losses. Businesses are interested only in the profit half If they can avoid losses by getting government subsidies, tariffs and other restrictions against imports, or domestic laws that stifle competition in various agricultural products, they will do so. Losses, however, are essential to the process that shifts resources to those who are providing what consumers want at the lowest prices-and away from those who are not.

The family firm parent and child

Jurist Blackstone (1765), writing in the eighteenth century, writes of an implicit contract between parents and children, one in which parents supply the child's material wants and educate the child (morally as well as intellectually) in return for current obedience and wages and, later in life, support in the parents' old age. This implicit contract becomes the basis for the legal system which protects the child during minority, gives the parent control over education, discipline and training, promotes the 'best interests of the child', allows the parent to consent to the child's marriage before majority, and places the duty of the aged parents' support on the adult child. Rubin et al. (1979) tie this set of reciprocal duties to holdings in land, supposing that there will be more parental investments in a child's human capital as eventual inheritance of the family farm stops being an important inducement to adhere to the implicit contract. Because their children cannot adequately...

Promoting competition

The ESM is generally more suspicious of market forces than the ASM therefore liberalization and deregulation have been slow in spreading in the EU, in spite of the fact that it is supposed to be a single market. Therefore, in spite of the Maastricht Treaty of 1992, the Competition Act of 1998 and the Enterprise Act of 2002, there remain significant differences between the approaches of the UK government and EU governments to competition. EU governments have often made considerable efforts to protect their industries from competition, even from other countries in the EU. This has applied in particular to the countries in the southern part of the EU, meaning France, Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece. Agricultural products enjoy much protection and this has been an

Competitive Strategy in Perfectly Competitive Markets

In perfectly competitive industries, above-normal returns sometimes reflect economic luck, or temporary good fortune due to unexpected changes in industry demand or cost conditions. For example, during 2001 many small to mid-size oil refineries and gasoline retailers benefited greatly when oil prices unexpectedly shot up following temporary oil shortages. At the same time, many other firms experienced economic losses following the unanticipated rise in energy costs. Both sets of companies experienced a reversal of fortune when energy prices plummeted. Grain farmers also benefit mightily when export demand for agricultural products skyrockets and suffer when export demand withers.

Empirical Estimation of Demand

Does curve D (given by the equation Q 28.7 - 0.98P) really represent the demand for the product The answer is yes, but only if no important factors other than product price affect demand. But in Table 4.5, we have included data for one omitted variable-the average income of purchasers of the product. Note that income (I) has increased twice during the study, suggesting that the demand for agricultural products has shifted twice. Thus, demand curves di, di, and fe in Figure 4.16 give a more likely description of demand. This demand relationship would be described algebraically as

Partial Derivatives in Economics

Consider an agricultural production function Y F(K, L, 7), where Y is the number of units produced, K capital invested, L labor input, and T the area of agricultural land that is used. Then dY 3 K F'K is called the marginal product of capital. It is the rate of change of output Y with respect to K when L and T are held fixed. Similarly, dY dL F and dY dT F'T are the marginal products of labor and of land, respectively. For example, if K is the value of capital equipment measured in dollars, and dY dK 5, then increasing capital input by 1 dollar would increase output by approximately 5 units.

The shift to multilateralism under the GATT

The United States initially insisted that members could impose quantitative restrictions on agricultural products when needed to permit the operation and enforcement of domestic agricultural support programs. Japan and the EU have been the strongest advocates of this provision in more recent years. The price support schemes of those economies have the effect of holding the domestic price above the world level, which requires that imports be restricted. Only in the 1990s was there much success in bringing agricultural trade into conformity with general GATT principles, but the conversion of quotas to tariffs resulted in extremely high ad valorem equivalent rates, for example, greater than 1000 percent in Japan.4

Partial Tests of the HOV Theorem

To run this regression, we first need to choose some aggregation scheme for net exports and factors of production. Leamer (1984) works with the trade data for 60 countries in two years, 1958 and 1975. The trade data is organized according to the Standard Industrial Trade Classification (SITC). Because these are traded goods, they include only merchandise, i.e. agriculture, mining and manufacturing. Leamer organizes these goods into 10 aggregates, as shown in the first column of Table 2.3 two primary products (petroleum and raw materials) four crops (forest products, tropical agricultural products, animal products and cereals) and four manufactured products (labor-intensive manufactures, capital-intensive manufactures, machinery and chemicals).11 Implicitly there is an eleventh product in the economy, making up all the non-traded goods, so Leamer includes total GNP as an aggregate to reflect this. There are also eleven factors of production, listed along the top row of Table 2.3...

Terms And Concerts

KEY QUESTION Carefully evaluate The supply and demand for agricultural products are such that small changes in agricultural supply result in drastic changes in prices. However, large changes in farm prices have modest effects on agricultural output. (Hint A brief review of the distinction between supply and quantity supplied may be helpful.) Do exports increase or reduce the instability of demand for farm products Explain. 2. What relationship, if any, can you detect between the fact that the farmer's fixed costs of production are large and the fact that the supply of most agricultural products is generally inelastic Be specific in your answer. 4. The key to efficient resource allocation is shifting resources from low-productivity to high-productivity uses. In view of the high and expanding physical productivity of agricultural resources, explain why many economists want to divert additional resources from farming to achieve allocative efficiency.

Quotas and other nontariff trade barriers

Quotas or limits on the quantity of allowable imports have some effects that are similar to a tariff but others that are quite different. Agricultural products often are protected by quotas, in many cases seasonal ones, although a major accomplishment of the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations is to require the conversion of these quotas into tariffs. Much of the world trade in textile and apparel products has been governed by quotas, but these protectionist regimes also are to be phased out under Uruguay Round agreements. Another form of quantitative restrictions to limit trade in manufactured goods became quite prevalent during

From Petty to physiocracy surplus and agriculture

Sharecroppers are poor and do not have the means to invest in modern capital equipment and in the modern techniques of cultivation, where 'modern' implies that the technology is more productive. This is the 'small scale cultivation' (see Quesnay, 1756 1958 ). In England agriculture is developed and has high productivity, both per unit of land and per worker, and the tenant-farmers can invest in the 'best technology'. This is the 'large scale cultivation' (ibid.). Notice that in modern agriculture there is an annual surplus of corn at the macro level, that is to say in the overall economy, this surplus can be measured in physical terms, because the output of corn exceeds the corn being used as an input. But the farmers also enjoy a surplus in value terms when the value of their output exceeds the sum of all their expenses, and this provides the funds and the incentive to invest in cultivation. The starting point of Quesnay's development policies is the introduction of the most modern...

Agribusiness Q1

A large organization which processes or distributes agricultural products. It benefits from economies of scale and is managed as an industrial firm, separating personnel, marketing, finance and production functions. agricultural policy (Q1) Price and income support schemes designed mainly to stabilize or increase farmers' incomes. Although consumers of food suffer through having to pay higher prices under most agricultural policies, it is unlikely that developed countries with highly productive agricultural sectors will allow a market in unsubsidized agricultural products as governments seek the votes of farmers to be re-elected. As the has become increasingly concerned with world trade in agricultural products, national agricultural policies may be harmonized more in the future.

Dont Forget

Solution A price floor is a government-mandated price that exists above the market's equilibrium price price floors result in a surplus of production. While market demand for most agricultural commodities is relatively stable over time, market supply is very much influenced by the weather. A drought, for example, decreases supply and pushes up prices while a bumper crop can severely depress agricultural prices. The profitability of farming becomes uncertain, as does the price of food products and the income needed to feed a household. Thus, the reasons for agricultural price supports (price floors) are (1) to stabilize farmer incomes and encourage farmers to continue farming whether there are bumper crops or droughts (2) to provide a steadier flow of agricultural products at relatively stable prices and (3) to stabilize the amount of income that households need to spend on food.

Market Agriculture

Contrast all of the above to agricultural organisation in modern market societies. Here, farms are typically located within a complex network of supporting suppliers and outlets in time and space, from which a wide range of inputs are purchased and to which outputs are sold. Crop farmers use formulaic combinations of fertilisers, pesticides and irrigation, employ agricultural machinery that is regularly serviced and use skilled, hired labour. In animal husbandry, there is similar dependence on bought-in feedstock and veterinary and transport services. Such farming practices are embedded in a modern, interdependent market society and they could not survive without it. The production methods employed are similarly dependent on market signals - where technical progress has brought down the price of machinery, seed varieties and or breeding stock, the farm will be highly capital intensive. Alternatively, if the price of farm labour is cheaper, farming practices may be less capital...

Brownfield Q3

Brundtland Report (Q0) The 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and Development which recommended that third world development projects should take into account environmental issues such as the destruction of forests and excessive farming which ruins agricultural land for a long time.

Cairns Group F0

The group of major agricultural exporting countries founded in 1986 and based in Australia. It consists of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Fiji, Hungary, indonesia, Malaysia, New zealand, the philippines, Thailand and Uruguay. it seeks to liberalize trade in agricultural products, especially through reductions in agricultural export subsidies and barriers to consumer markets these entail changes in national agricultural policies. The group also acts as the representative of these countries in general

Coase and all that

The same problem occurs here. Even though the benefit to the farmers is great enough so that it would be profitable if they each pay the same amount or if the amount depended on the distance from the railroad, individual farmers could gain by refusing to pay and hoping that the others will provide this spark catcher. The simple Coase solution to the problem assumes that there is no bargaining cost and no holdout problem. That seems unlikely. 1. Rent seeking was first discussed systematically by Tullock (1967). The term 'rent seeking' was first used to describe the activity in question by Krueger (1974). Tullock (1967) described a community of 100 farmers in which access to the main highway is via small trunk roads, each of which serves only four to five farmers. The issue comes up as to whether the entire community of 100 should finance the repair of all of the trunk roads out of a tax on the entire community. Obviously one can envisage a level of...

Protecting Markets

3.2 This chapter focuses in particular on industrialised economies. Despite the steady reduction of average tariffs over the past half-century - most notably in manufactures under the GATT - industrial economies still have a high and costly degree of protection on specific products. In agriculture, there are still extremely high tariffs on some products tariff peaks reach 506 per cent in the EU and 350 per cent in the US.1 In non-agricultural products, the EU has 135 separate tariffs in excess of 15 per cent in the vehicles, footwear and fish sectors the US has 230 such tariffs and Australia has nearly 800.2 Anti-dumping measures are used widely to boost protection further the average tariff rate for anti-dumping duties in 2001 was 23 per cent, and a number of imports to the EU are subject to anti-dumping duties above 50 per cent. Peak tariffs, escalating tariffs, anti-dumping duties and product standards remain highly significant and damaging forms of protection in industrialised...

Indirect Agents

The discovery of new uses for agents or for their products raises their rents. Farm land of the poorest kind often is found to contain valuable mineral deposits. Such a lucky find has lifted the mortgage from a farm in eastern Pennsylvania, from which, in two or three years, has been taken feldspar exceeding in value the agricultural products of the same land in the last fifty years. The discovery of building stone, coal, natural gas, or oil land may make the annual rent (or royalty) of land tenfold its former total value. Fitness to produce nettles is not ordinarily a virtue in land, but the discovery that certain fields produce a superior quality of the nettle used for heckling cloth, causes them to take on a new value. A mineral spring, because of the supposed or proved healing properties of its waters, may be as good as a mine to the owner. Peculiar fitness for the cultivation of celery may convert marsh land into a substantial source of income.

Search this book

The emphasis on cryptographic technologies stems from the fear of tampering and the desire to preserve the integrity of a digital product. But is the transmutability of digital products only a liability for sellers To the contrary, digital products are more valuable than physical products because of their malleability. Suppose that you have completed a masterpiece painting. The copyright law gives you the right to make derivative works from the painting. To incorporate a portion of the painting, however, you need to re-draw it, which might take as much time and effort as the first time. On the other hand, a digital masterpiece can be copied effortlessly. In other words, after a product is produced, subsequent costs for derivative works could be minimal. Derivative works can be thought of as benefits of annual crops from owning an agricultural land, or annual offspring gained from owning cattle. Digital products have comparably smaller annual expenses to reap such benefits. Therefore,...

Emission taxation

Enclosure Enclosure generally refers to the conversion of communally managed agricultural land into individually owned lots. Specifically it refers to the enclosure of waste (marginal) land and especially of the open fields supposedly characteristic of feudal Europe. The latter involved a rotation between individually farmed arable strips within communally managed fields, and the use of the fields as common grazing. Discussion of enclosure was long dominated by neo-Marxist theories, and it is certainly the case that an unequal distribution of income was often associated with enclosure, as is now often observed with the loss of common-use rights in developing economies. However, improved understanding of the economics of transactions costs and of common property resources has enabled a better appreciation and even formal modelling of the efficiency and sustainability of pre- and post-enclosure farming systems and of their relationship with the level of agricultural technology....


Baum has studied the postwar record of government and found it poor. 20 He particularly attacks the inconsistencies and contradictions in policy. Government tried to improve efficiency and yet to maintain inefficient small firms and small farms. In providing security it discouraged output. In taxing sales on the forfait system, it encouraged high markups on low turnover with bad effects on the price level and efficient distribution. Rent controls inhibited building and limited labor mobility. The regressive system of social security taxes both raised manufacturing costs and had the effect of making the laboring classes pay for their own security.


Exports into Germany increased considerably and Dutch agricultural products helped Germany to continue its war effort. After the defeat of Germany the Dutch cabinet had the conviction that German recovery after the war was in the interests of the Netherlands. But this was mutual Germany also had this conviction 'In the Netherlands the prerequisites for co-operation were present. The war had accelerated industrial modernization and the expansion of Dutch financial resources, which enabled the country to re-establish itself as a major European banking, finance, and service center in the post-war period - a position that it had lost at the end of the eighteenth century' (Frey, 2000 242).

Land economy Q0

The study of property valuation and the economic factors determining the capital costs of land and buildings within an economy This study comprehends the examination of the development of bare land to meet the market demands of the economy for accommodation, supply and property investments, ranging from those of agricultural land through to the optimal development of urban properties, e.g. offices and retail developments. Land economy matches demand for accommodation with the needs of the property investor and the restrictions of planners.

Consumers and Demand

This marked the beginning of a period of cooperation between Schultz and Hotelling, during which they tackled the problem of demand, Hotelling emphasizing theory and Schultz empirical work. During this period, they discovered the work of Slutsky, Hicks, and Allen, and the condition that, for an income-constrained consumer, the cross-partial derivatives of the compensated demand function should be equal. The culmination of this line of research (which ended with Schultz's death in a car accident in 1938) was Schultz's Theory and Measurement of Demand (1938). In the final section of this book, Schultz tested the hypothesis of rational consumer behavior by testing both the Hotelling and Slutsky symmetry conditions for a range of agricultural products. The results were not encouraging - conflicting evidence meant that the demand relations between pork and mutton could not be determined from the data. Schultz tried to find a statistical explanation that saved the theory, but the project of...

Migration F2 J1

Mineral-based economy (N0, P0) An industrial economy using large machinery driven by a plentiful supply of energy, especially coal. This economy, less reliant on agricultural products, can sustain a higher population density than its predecessor, the ADVANCED ORGANIC ECONOMY.


It is clear that these conditions are rarely achieved in reality however, this does not negate the usefulness of the analysis of perfect competition. Once again it is necessary to remember that a theory should be judged not on the basis of the realism of its assumptions but on its ability to explain and predict. The conditions are approximately approached in some markets, for example agricultural products and stock markets. Furthermore, the analysis and conclusions in terms of conduct and performance provide a useful benchmark for comparing other forms of market structure.

Pure Competition

On the negative side, the expected rate of return on R& D may be low or even negative for a pure competitor. Because of easy entry, its profit rewards from innovation may quickly be competed away by existing or entering firms that also produce the new product or adopt the new technology. Also, the small size of competitive firms and the fact that they earn only a normal profit in the long run leads to serious questions about whether they can finance substantial R& D programs. Observers have noted that the high rate of technological advance in the purely competitive agricultural industry, for example, has come not from the R& D of individual farmers but from government-sponsored research and from the development of fertilizers, hybrid seed, and farm implements by oligopolistic-firms.

Figure 135

As shown in Figure 13.6, the costs of environmental regulation amount to 27.6 percent of the total. Clean air and water controls are especially significant and are expected to rachet upwards after 2000 when the full effects of the 1990 clean air amendments are felt. Other social regulation with important cost consequences (9.4 percent of the total) includes regulation of worker safety and health, auto safety, nuclear safety, and job security. Regulatory costs measured in terms of lost efficiency (efficiency costs, 10.7 percent) are thought to be especially important in transportation, international trade, communications, and agriculture. Indirect regulation, which transfers costs from producers to consumers, are another big regulatory cost item (19.6 percent). Voluntary controls over imports of autos, textiles, and agricultural products such as sugar cost billions, while entrenched pressure groups make them hard to eliminate. A final major source of regulatory costs is paperwork, now...

Star Chamber H1

State capitalism (P2) A transitional stage to communism, as typified by the original soviet economic system. The state owns almost 100 per cent of industrial capital and agricultural land, using a hierarchy of industrial ministries, agencies and enterprises to run the productive sector of the economy.


In Section 9.1 we consider the case when time, t, is a discrete variable taking whole-number values. This describes the situation in which variables change only after fixed periods. For example, the prices of certain agricultural products change from one season to the next but are fixed throughout each season. We express this time dependence using an obvious subscript notation. The price during the first period is denoted by P,, the price during the second period is P2, and so on. Equations that relate the price in one period, Pt, to that of the previous period, Pt-1, are called difference equations and a method is described for the solution of such equations.

Lagging Demand

Increases in demand for agricultural products, however, have failed to keep pace with technologically created increases in the supply of the products. The reason lies in the two major determinants of agricultural demand income and population. Income-Inelastic Demand In developing countries, consumers must devote most of their meagre incomes to agricultural products food and clothing to sustain themselves. But as income expands beyond subsistence and the problem of hunger diminishes, consumers increase their outlays on food at ever-declining rates. Once consumers' stomachs are filled, they turn to the amenities of life that manufacturing and services, rather than by agriculture, provide. Economic growth in Canada has boosted average per capita income far beyond the level of subsistence. As a result, increases in the incomes of Canadian consumers now produce less-than-proportionate increases in spending on farm products.

International Costs

The costs of farm price supports actually go beyond those indicated by Figure 20-4. Price supports generate economic distortions that cross national boundaries. For example, price supports make the Canadian agricultural market attractive to foreign producers. But inflows of foreign agricultural products would increase supplies in Canada, aggravating the problem of surpluses. To prevent this from happening, Canada is likely to impose import barriers in the form of tariffs or quotas. These

Changing Politics

World Trade Considerations Canada is one of the countries that has taken the lead to reduce barriers to world trade in agricultural products. That has also contributed to the more critical attitude toward farm subsidies and particularly price supports. The nations of the European Union (EU) and many other nations provide support for agricultural prices. And, to maintain their high domestic prices, they restrict imports of foreign farm products by imposing tariffs (excise taxes) and quotas (quantitative limits on imports of foreign goods). They then try to rid themselves of their domestic surpluses by subsidizing exports into world markets. The effects on Canada are that (1) trade barriers hinder Canadian farmers from selling to EU nations, and (2) subsidized exports from those nations depress world prices for agricultural products, making world markets less attractive to Canadian farmers. Perhaps most important, farm programs such as those maintained by the EU and Canada distort both...

Business and Labor

After free market principles gained wider acceptance in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, business leaders were of course prepared to invoke those principles for political reasons, whenever it suited their particular purposes of the moment. But business leaders and organizations have proven equally willing to seek government intervention to keep out foreign competition, bail out failing corporations and banks, and receive billions of dollars in agricultural subsidies, ostensibly for the sake of saving family farms, but in reality going disproportionately to big corporations. When President Richard Nixon imposed the first peacetime wage and price controls in 1971, he was publicly praised by the chairman of General Motors, and cooperation with these policies was urged by the National Association of Manufacturers and the U. S. Chamber of Commerce. Businesses themselves have pushed for laws making it harder for outside investors to take over a corporation and replace its management....

Uncertainty D8

Underemployment (J2) Work with a low productivity, e.g. agricultural labour on small farms part-time employment of workers who want fulltime jobs. The extent of underemployment is reflected in low wages and in a lower output per person than that of workers in the most efficient enterprises of that industry. Much underemployment occurs in the secondary sector of the labour market.

Upstream firm L2

Uruguay Round (F1) The GATT negotiations of 1986-91 with 92 participant countries. The principal features of this round were an attempt to reduce the protectionism of developed countries, without full reciprocity from less developed countries, and to reduce Us and european community subsidies to agriculture thereby cutting surpluses and making world agricultural markets work more smoothly. This is the first time a policy to deal with agricultural products has been the subject of GATT negotiations - even reductions in agricultural sanitary regulations have been proposed as they can act as a barrier to trade. Trade-related investment, intellectual property rights and trade services were also covered.

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