in a graphic display of their strengths and weaknesses. An ideal product would score 5 on all 6 objectives. The eco-compass can be used to identify more eco-efficient alternatives to existing products and to show the relative benefits of different alternatives. (OECD, 1998.)

eco-development Eco-development is defined as development which induces desirable change for a human social group. Thus, it is held to be not only better for the social group but also to promote economic, social and ecological equilibrium. Under such development, there is a concern for self-reliance and an attempt to optimize the balance between human needs, locally available resources and culturally desirable lifestyles. (Riddell, 1981.) See also sustainable development (SD).

eco-efficiency This term describes patterns of production which exploit the positive correlation between economic efficiency and ecological efficiency. That is, the achievement of eco-efficiency involves continuing to produce goods and services which satisfy customer needs at competitive prices, while reducing over time the environmental resources used in, and the environmental damage caused by, their production. A measure of eco-efficiency would be the ratio of the value of goods and services produced to the environmental inputs used and damage associated with their production. Specific means by which eco-efficiency can be improved include reducing the materials and energy used to produce goods and services, limiting waste emissions from the production process, maximizing the potential for recycling, and maximizing the sustainable use of renewable resources.

Government policy to improve eco-efficiency includes taxing natural inputs and the emissions of toxic wastes. This, by internalizing the external costs of production, reduces the gap between private and social aims and values, in that the creation of such economic incentives would make saving energy and materials more profitable. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) adopted eco-efficiency as a business concept in 1992, in its report to the Rio Earth Summit. The concept of eco-efficiency is related to the ecological footprints associated with production and consumption, and to the attempt to limit ecological impacts and resource use to a level within the Earth's estimated carrying capacity. (OECD, 1998.) See also energy efficiency; technical efficiency.

eco-feminism: A movement which argues that the ideology which causes men to dominate and misuse nature is identical to that responsible for the domination of women by men. Eco-feminists argue that androcentrism (male-centred thought) is the cause of environmental problems, and therefore that the solution lies in overthrowing androcentrism. (Krishnan et al, 1995.)

eco-labelling Eco-labels, green labels or environmental labels are easily identifiable seals on product packaging. They inform consumers about the effects that the production, consumption and waste of products and services have on the environment. They have two objectives. The first is to provide consumers with information about the environmental effects of their consumption with a view to encouraging more environmentally friendly consumption patterns. The second is to encourage governments, firms and other agents to raise environmental standards in general.

The most common eco-labels are Type I labels, which certify a product's environmental standards relative to other products. They are third party

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