V1, V2, L1, L2'
where and S2 are slack variables representing excess capacity of resources r1 and r2, respectively. L1, L2 and L3 are also slack variables; they represent the amount by which the value of resources used in the production of Qa, Q2, and Q3 exceeds the value of output as measured by TCj, n2 and n3, respectively. Thus, L1, L2 and L3 measure the opportunity cost, or foregone profit, as a result of producing the last unit of Qa, Q2 and Q3.
Understanding these basic rules simplifies construction of the dual, given a primal program, and facilitates understanding and interpretation of the constraints and coefficients found in both primal and dual linear programming problems.
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