Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more here...

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Financing Energy Management Projects

Financing can be a key success factor for projects. This chapter's purpose is to help facility managers understand and apply the financial arrangements available to them. Hopefully, this approach will increase the implementation rate of good energy management projects, which would have otherwise been cancelled or postponed due to lack of funds. Most facility managers agree that energy management projects (EMPs) are good investments. Generally, EMPs reduce operational costs, have a low risk reward ratio, usually improve productivity and even have been shown to improve a firm's stock price.1 Despite these benefits, many cost-effective EMPs are not implemented due to financial constraints. A study of manufacturing facilities revealed that first-cost and capital constraints represented over 35 of the reasons cost-effective EMPs were not implemented.2 Often, the facility manager does not have enough cash to allocate funding, or can not get budget approval to cover initial costs. Financial...

Emissions And Energy Consumption For Different Transport Chains

RESUME - ABSTRACT WITHIN NTM - THE NATIONAL GROUP FOR TRANSPORT AND THE ENVIRONMENT, THE MEMBERS HAVE LISTED DATA ON EMISSIONS AND ENERGY FOR THE FOUR DIFFERENT MODES OF GOODS TRANSPORTATION. THE AIM OF THIS PROJECT IS TO GIVE THE TRANSPORT SECTOR AN OPPORTUNITY TO CARRY OUT CALCULATIONS OF EMISSIONS AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN AN HOMOGENEOUS WAY USING THE DATA FROM NTM. EXAMPLES OF CALCULATIONS FOR DIFFERENT TRANSPORT CHAINS WILL BE PRESENTED AS WELL AS POSSIBLE LACK OF DATA. THIS PROJECT SHALL ALSO GIVE SUPPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS, IN ORDER TO MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO DEVELOP A CALCULATION MODEL AT A LATER STAGE. THE WORK WILL BE CARRIED OUT IN COLLABORATION WITH THE MEMBERS OF NTM, WITH GUIDANCE FROM A STEERING GROUP. DESCRIPTEURS - KEYWORDS SWEDEN AIR POLLUTION ENERGY CONSUMPTION FREIGHT TRANSPORT MODE OF TRANSPORT

Solar Thermal Power Plants

The term solar thermal power plant comprises power plants which first convert solar radiation into heat. The resulting thermal energy is subsequently transformed into mechanical energy by a thermal engine, and then converted into electricity. For thermodynamic reasons high temperatures are required to achieve the utmost efficiency. Such high temperatures are reached by increasing the energy flux density of the solar radiation incident on a collector. In this respect, we refer to concentrated radiation or concentrating collectors. As an alternative, with regard to technical economic optimisation of the overall system, also lower temperatures, resulting in considerably reduced costs may be desired in some cases. However, such concepts imply the use of large-surface cost-efficient collectors. The above mentioned framework conditions give rise to a whole series of different solar thermal power plant concepts. According to the type of solar radiation concentration, solar thermal power...

Solar updraft tower power plants

For a solar updraft tower power plant the three components of glass roof collector, chimney and turbine are combined. The use of this combination for power generation was already described more than 70 years ago 5-26 . Fig. 5.24 Function principle of a solar updraft tower power plant Fig. 5.24 Function principle of a solar updraft tower power plant The principle, on which a solar updraft tower power plant is based, is shown in Fig. 5.24. The incident direct and diffuse solar radiation warms the air below a flat, circular glass roof, open at the circumference, which, in conjunction with the bottom underneath, forms an air collector. The middle of the roof is equipped with a vertical chimney provided with big openings for air supply. The roof is connected air-tight to the chimney bottom. Since warm air is of lower density than cold air, it rises to the top of the chimney tube. At the same time, the pull of the chimney makes warm air flow from the collector inside the chimney, so that...

The Role of MV in Managing Risks in Energy Efficiency Investments

Energy and water efficiency projects meet a range of objectives, including upgrading equipment, improving performance, helping to achieve environmental compliance, or simply saving energy and money. All projects have one thing in common, an initial financial investment. The type of investment may be an internal allocation of funds (in-house project) or it may be a complex contractual agreement with an ESCO and or third-party financial institution. A lack of internal funds for costly infrastructure improvement projects (such as replacement of old chiller, installation of variable speed drives, upgrading the lighting system, etc.) has led to an increase in third-party financed projects. Provides framework, language to allow parties to develop M&V plans for a specific program -FEMP's Super Energy Savings Performance Contracts. Reliably measure the energy and demand savings in building energy management projects. Measurement and Verification (M&V), sometimes also referred to as monitoring...

Modelling Of Energy Savings In The Shipyard

RESUME - ABSTRACT SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION TO THE INCREASE OF BUSINESS EFFICIENCY IN SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY COULD BE ACHIEVED BY DECREASING THE ENRGY COSTS, THE DETERMINATION OF ENERGY COSTS ON PRODUCT AND OPERATION AND THE MONITORING OF WORKING INTENSITY. BY INTRODUCING THE COMPUTERISED MONITORING OF THE 15 MIN TOTAL ELECTRIC ENERGY LOAD DEMANDS AND ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMPTION ON THE MOST IMPORTANT PLACES, INFORMATION FOR LIMITING THE PEAK LOAD BY DISCONNECTION OF GROUP OR SINGLE CONSUMERS, ACTIVATING OWN ENERGY SOURCES AND THE REORGANISATIOIN OF WORKING PROCESSES CAN BE OBTAINED. THE ADEQUATE HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE STRUCTURE WILL ENABLE THE CREATION OF MODEL FOR THE SIMULATION OF THE EFFECTS OF THE PLANNED PROCEDURES. THE COMPUTERISED MONITORING AND CONTROL OF POWER SYSTEMS WILL INCREASE THEIR RELIABILITY AND SAFETY, OBTAIN DECREASE IN ENERGY COSTS, ENABLE THE DYNAMIC APPROACH IN THE PLANNING AND NEGOTIATION OF ENERGY DEMANDS, OBTAIN ADDITIONAL POSSIBILITIES IN MONITORING THE...

International Energy Efficiency Financing

There are many barriers that have to be overcome to successfully implement energy efficiency projects (EEPs) in international markets. First, the macro-type barriers such as the economic, political, legal and financial stability of a country must be overcome before any reasonable level of energy efficiency can be pursued. Once these barriers are removed, there are commercial issues such as market size, sales strategy, currency risks, available resources (especially personnel) and many other operating issues, different in each country, that must be carefully analyzed and overcome through a well-conceived plan. However, even after all of these are resolved, there is still one major barrier that has to be overcome. It is the same one that has historically plagued and continues to plague the wide spread implementation of energy efficiency in every developing country it is project financing.

A21 Tidal power plants

The easiest method consists of a one-basin-system that is only used in one direction (Fig. A.6, top). A bay is separated from the open sea by means of a dam, but remains connected to the sea by a floodgate and a turbine. The control system of the turbine and the floodgate ensures that water can only enter the bay via the floodgate and can only exit the bay through the turbine. This turbine is connected with an electrical generator providing the electrical energy. A fundamental disadvantage of such types of tidal power plants is that energy can only be generated during comparatively short time periods (Fig. A.6, top). Its advantage is the simple turbine design. Tidal power stations can also be designed as a two-basin-system (Fig. A.6, bottom). Between the two basins another turbine is integrated. This turbine is either built into a dam or into a connecting canal located between the two basins connected to the sea also via turbines. Water inflow and outflow is controlled as water enters...

Applying Financial Arrangements A Case Study

The chilled water system will be sold at an estimated market value of 1,200,000 (book value at year five 669,375). The chilled water system should save PizzaCo about 1 million year in energy savings. PizzaCo's tax rate is 34 . The equipment's annual maintenance and insurance cost is 50,000. PizzaCo's MARR is 18 . Since at the end of year 5, PizzaCo expects to sell the asset for an amount greater than its book value, the additional revenues are called a capital gain, (which equals the market value - book value) and are taxed. If PizzaCo sells the asset for less than its book value, PizzaCo incurs a capital loss. Loans have been the traditional financial arrangement for many types of equipment purchases. A bank's willingness to loan depends on the borrower's financial health, experience in energy management and number of years in business. Obtaining a bank loan can be difficult if the loan officer is unfamiliar with EMPs. Loan officers and financiers may not understand energy-related...

Financing Energy Projects through Performance Contracting

Since soaring energy prices and the growing need for energy efficiency hit the center of our radar screen in the 1970s, there has been growing recognition that using energy more efficiently is good for the economy and the environment. It's just good business. Yet survey after survey revealed that many organizations put off energy-efficiency work for one major reason money. If we are to get the fish's attention, we must talk their language and make the case in their terms. For them to bite, the bait on the hook must make energy efficiency (EE) a solid business opportunity. It is essential that we provide our fish (1) an effective cost benefit analysis procedure, which compares the net benefits of energy efficiency to increased production (2) a new perspective of energy savings as a percentage of the bottom line and (3) energy efficiency and conservation as a very cost-effective delivery system for meeting environmental mandates a way to make money while reducing emissions. Probably our...

Operations and Maintenance OM

Too often overlooked, energy efficient O&M practices are absolutely vital to the success of a project. An evaluation of the schools and hospitals federal energy grants program (Institutional Conservation Program) after eight grant cycles revealed that in effective energy management programs, up to 80 percent of the savings could be attributed to energy efficient O&M practices. If ESCOs are to guarantee the savings

Getting Detailed Data

Following the facility or plant tour, the auditor or audit team should acquire the detailed data on facility equipment and operation that will lead to identifying the significant Energy Conservation Opportunities (ECOs) that may be appropriate for this facility. This includes data on lighting, HVAC equipment, motors, water heating, and specialized equipment such as refrigerators, ovens, mixers, boilers, heaters, etc. This data is most easily recorded on individualized data sheets that have been prepared in advance.

The Energy Audit Report

The report should begin with an executive summary that provides the owners managers of the audited facility with a brief synopsis of the total savings available and the highlights of each ECO. The report should then describe the facility that has been audited, and provide information on the operation of the facility that relates to its energy costs. The energy bills should be presented, with tables and plots showing the costs and consumption. Following the energy cost analysis, the recommended ECOs should be presented, along with the calculations for the costs and benefits, and the cost-effectiveness criterion.

Industrial Audits Introduction

The highly specialized equipment that is used in industrial processes is what differentiates these facilities from large commercial operations. The challenge for the auditor and energy management specialist is to learn how this complex and often unique industrial equipment operates, and to come up with improvements to the processes and the equipment that can save energy and money. The sheer scope of the problem is so great that industrial firms often hire specialized consulting engineers to examine their processes and recom A few electric and gas utilities are large enough, and well-enough staffed, that they can offer industrial audits to their customers. These utilities have a trained staff of engineers and process specialists with extensive experience who can recommend operational changes or new equipment to reduce the energy costs in a particular production environment. Many gas and electric utilities, even if they do not offer audits, do offer financial incentives for facilities...

Commercial Audit Services

Electric and gas utilities, as well as many engineering consulting firms, perform audits for commercial facilities. Some utilities offer free walk-through audits for commercial customers, and also offer financial incentives for customers who change to more energy efficient equipment. Schools, hospitals and some other government institutions can qualify for free audits under the ICP program described in the first part of this chapter. Whoever conducts the commercial audit must initiate the ICP process by collecting information on the rate energy rate structures,

Future Issuesdirection

Recent successes in energy-efficiency performance contracting and the development of standard M&V protocols, has made it possible to quantify energy savings (Negawatts) and structure financial deals based on the magnitude of energy savings. The presence of NOx and SOx trading market in the US and emerging carbon trading market across the globe are a couple of avenues to monetize quantified energy savings and in the process improve the return on investment on energy efficiency projects. Although the energy efficiency community will not set the rules of trading, it is important to work with the environmental authorities and protocol development groups. It is expected that the authorities will establish rules in areas such as rights of ownership, liability, disclosure reporting, certification, accuracy, baseline, surplus, double counting, etc They must do this for all sorts of projects, not just energy efficiency projects, for many different types of trading philosophies. The energy...

Why Read This Book

We all know Energy Projects are very important to our economy and our environment. I am proud to say that with energy conservation projects the more we do, the better it is for the environment (this is a rare profession). So, what can we do to increase the number of projects that are implemented Well, the number one project killer is You guessed it Lack of Funding. So, this book is all about solutions to that problem. Many projects must be financed to get approval because most organizations (like most families) do not have cash just lying around so that they can accomplish all tasks at one time. Your energy project may be one of many potential projects from which a CFO must choose only a few to implement. If you can make your deal so that it has positive cash flow, you can stand-out from the other projects and become the CFO's new best friend. With energy saving projects, another selling point is to determine the dollars that will be wasted with the do nothing option. Doing nothing is...

Chapter Summary

Performance Contract including over 40 million in energy efficiency equipment, which saves 7,000,000 year Performance Contract including over 4 million in energy efficiency equipment, which saves 380,000 year Performance Contract including over 8 million in energy efficiency equipment, which saves over 1 million year 1. Wingender, J. and Woodroof, E., (1997) When Firms Publicize Energy Management Projects Their Stock Prices Go Up How High As Much as 21.33 within 150 days of an Announcement, Strategic Planning for Energy and the Environment, Vol. 17(1), pp. 38-51. 2. U.S. Department of Energy, (1996) Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Investment Decisions by Small and Medium-Sized Manufactur ers, U.S. DOE, Office of Policy and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, pp. 37-38. 3. Woodroof, E. and Turner, W. (1998), Financial Arrangements for Energy Management Projects, Energy Engineering 95(3) pp. 23-71. 5. Fretty, J. (1996), Financing Energy-Efficient Upgraded Equipment,...

What to Look for

Lighting Making a detailed inventory of all lighting is important. Data should be recorded on numbers of each type of light fixtures and lamps, wattages of lamps, and hours of operation of groups of lights. A lighting inventory data sheet should be used to record this data. Using a lightmeter, the auditor should also record light intensity readings for each area. Taking notes on types of tasks performed in each area will help the auditor select alternative lighting technologies that might be more energy efficient. Other items to note are the areas that may be infrequently used and may be can HVAC Equipment All heating, air conditioning and ventilating equipment should be inventoried. Prepared data sheets can be used to record type, size, model numbers, age, electrical specifications or fuel use specifications, and estimated hours of operation. The equipment should be inspected to determine the condition of the evaporator and condenser coils, the air filters, and the insulation on the...

State Energy Offices

Many states offer programs of free boiler tune-ups, free air conditioning system checks, seminars on energy efficiency for various facilities, and other services. Most state energy offices have well-stocked energy libraries, and are also tied into other state energy research organizations, and to national laboratories and the USDOE.

Lighting

Lighting is not as great a percent of total industrial use as it is in the commercial sector on the average, but lighting is still a big energy use and cost area for many industrial facilities. A complete inventory of all lighting should be taken during the audit visit. Hours of operation of lights are also necessary, since lights are commonly left on when they are not needed. Timers, Energy Management Systems, and occupancy sensors are all valuable approaches to insuring that lights that are not needed are not turned on. It is also important to look at the facility's outside lighting for parking and for storage areas.

Boilers

All boilers should be checked for efficient operation using a stack gas combustion analyzer. Boiler specifications on Btu per hour ratings, pressures and temperatures should be recorded. The boiler should be varied between low-fire, normal-fire, and high-fire, with combustion gas and temperature readings taken at each level. Boiler tune-up is one of the most common, and most energy-saving operations available to many facilities. The auditor should check to see whether any waste heat from the boiler is being recovered for use in a heat recuperator or for some other use such as water heating. If not, this should be noted as a potential ECO.

Conducting the Audit

A significant difference in industrial and commercial audits arises in the area of lighting. Lighting in commercial facilities is one of the largest energy costs sometimes accounting for half or more of the entire electric bill. Lighting levels and lighting quality are extremely important to many commercial operations. Retail sales operations, in particular, want light levels that are far in excess of standard office values. Quality of light in terms of color is also a big concern in retail sales, so finding acceptable ECOs for reducing lighting costs is much more difficult for retail facilities than for office buildings. The challenge is to find new lighting technologies that allow high light levels and warm color while reducing the wattage required. New T8 and T10 fluorescent lamps, and metal halide lamp replacements for mercury vapor lamps offer these features, and usually represent cost-effective ECOs for retail sales and other facilities.

Liability

Energy audits are an important first step in the overall pro-cess of reducing energy costs for any building, company, or industry. A thorough audit identifies and analyzes the changes in equipment and operations that will result in cost-effective energy cost reduction. The energy auditor plays a key role in the successful conduct of an audit, and also in the implementation of the audit recommendations.

Weather

A number of energy efficiency measures are affected by weather. Neither the Contractor nor the customer has control over the weather. Changes in weather can increase or decrease savings depending on the M&V method (e.g. equipment run hours times efficiency improvement vs. whole building utility analysis). If weather is normalized, actual savings could be less than payments for a given year, but will average out over the long run. Clearly specify how weather corrections will be performed. Weather can have a profound influence on the successful (or unsuccessful) realization of energy savings and the M&V plan must clearly lay out the conditions under which weather will be normalized and the assumptions technique that will be used during the process.

Structural Risk

Cated to the lender and performance risk clearly assumed by the ESCO or the end user obligor. This bright line separation enables the lender to evaluate and underwrite the transaction according to standard credit procedures, without focusing on technical specifications, savings estimates, energy costs, equipment reliability and a host of other factors that affect the ESCO's ability to perform as required under the terms of the contract. The bottom line is that the lender must be protected from any risk of non-payment due to an actual or alleged performance deficiency or default.

Qualified Customers

Engineering capability from personnel in the local market. Local resource capability is required to expeditiously develop and implement energy efficiency projects and to be able to provide the services in a cost-effective manner, which is aligned with the typically lower costs in foreign markets. Unfortunately, this type of expertise is particularly specialized to an ESCO's performance-based business, and it is therefore new to foreign markets. Furthermore, it requires experienced individuals who are highly talented in the specialized technical, financial, and legal aspects of selling and structuring energy savings projects. This is probably the most difficult barrier to overcome because most emerging markets have little or no experience in implementing EEPs with a guaranteed long-term persistence of savings over the estimated life of the loan. The problem is compounded by the difficulty of trying to sell (and price) these services in countries where the foreign portion of resources...

Project Financing

A lack of Project Financing is the most significant barrier to an ESCO because it is fundamental to the core business model offered by an ESCO to its customer, which is that the customer will not have to provide any capital to implement the EEP. The investment will be arranged or provided by the ESCO, and it will be repaid from the savings of the EEPs. It is so fundamental to the ESCO's business model, that an ESCO cannot consider doing business in a country where it cannot obtain a long-term reliable source for financing its EEPs. The Project Financing barrier is difficult to overcome because there is rarely an established local banking system in an emerging market that is familiar with or comfortable with financing energy savings projects on a debt basis and for periods of 7 to 10 years. The problem is compounded by the relative small size of EEPs in relation to large independent power projects. The small size also equates to a perceived small market size, which makes it very...

Analysis Intervals

Abnormal Return of Firms Announcing Energy Management Projects Table S-2. Long-Term Abnormal Return of Firms Announcing Energy Management Projects Figure 8-1. Abnormal Return of Firms Announcing Energy Management Projects It was recognized that the type of EMP could influence the magnitude of the abnormal stock increase. Thus, the Complete Sample was further stratified into two sub-samples EMPs that were Lighting Retrofits and EMPs that were installations of other types of Energy Efficient Equipment (such as HVAC upgrades, chiller upgrades, etc.). Both sub-samples were analyzed by the Eventus software, and the Energy Efficient Equipment sub-sample correlated with a 1.42 increase over the (-10,10) interval, at the 0.01 significance level. The Lighting Retrofit sub-sample yielded no significant returns over the (-10,10) inter-

Economic Analysis

Tion of alternative heating, ventilating, or air conditioning systems. For federal buildings, Congress and the President have mandated, through legislation and executive order, energy conservation goals that must be met using cost-effective measures. The life cycle cost approach is mandated as the means of evaluating cost effectiveness.

Pricing Power Energy and Capacity

When generation cost data are presented, capacity cost is usually stated in kW. This is the cost of the flow of capacity produced by a generator over its lifetime, so the true (but unstated) units are kW-lifetime. This cost provides useful information but only for the purpose of finding fixed costs that can be expressed in MWh. No other useful economic computation can be performed with the overnight cost of capacity given in kW because they cannot be compared with other costs until levelized. While the U.S. Department of Energy sometimes computes these economically useful (levelized) fixed costs, it never publishes them. Instead it combines them with variable costs and reports total levelized energy costs.1 This is the result of a widespread lack of understanding of the nature of capacity costs.

Structure and procedure

As supply tasks for the heat provision, three different single family houses (SFH) with a different heat demand, one multiple family house (MFH), as well as three district heating networks (DH) of different sizes are analysed. According to Table 1.1 these supply tasks are characterised by heat demand for domestic hot water and space heating (SFH and MFH) or the corresponding total heat demand (DH). The analysed single-family-houses represent the heat demand of a low-energy house (SFH-I), a building realised with state-of-the-art heat insulation (SFH-II), as well as a building with heat insulation typical for Central Europe (SFH-III). The multiple family house is a building of 15 flats built in compliance with state-of-the-art insulation standards.

The future of uranium filling the gap

The amount of supply from any one source will be dependent on the prices of uranium, enrichment and reprocessing service. The mixture of these alternatives also will be a function of the energy policy of various countries. National energy policy will impact where and how material is produced as well as how it is consumed. It will include restrictions on access to material and facilities. This paper will not address national policy.

Liikennejarjestelman Tavoitteiston Kehittaminen Transport System Indicators

RESUME - ABSTRACT THE STUDY IS MAINLY DIRECTED TO CASE CITY AREAS IN WHICH OPERATION ENTITIES ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO THE R&D PROGRAMME (MTC B 18 97). THE PROGRAMME HAS BEEN DRAWN UP ON THE BASIS OF PRELIMINARY STUDIES IN LARGE SCALE CO-OPERATION. IN FURTHER PREPARATIONS, IT WILL BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT CO-OPERATION AND DIVISION OF WORK WITH OTHER RESEARCH PROGRAMMES AND PROJECTS. THE PROGRAMME IS AIMED AT THE INTEGRATION OF COMMUNITY STRUCTURE BY PLANNING, AT REDUCING THE DEPENDANCE ON PRIVATE CARS, AT PREFERING PUBLIC TRANSPORT, CYCLING AND WALKING, AT ENSURING THE VITALITY OF CENTRES ETC. THE STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE IS TO SUPPORT THE REALISATION OF THE PRINCIPAL SOLUTION OF THE PARLIAMENTARY TRANSPORT COMMITEE, THE GOVERNMENT ENERGY SAVING PROGRAMME AND THE GOVERNMENT TRAFFIC SAFETY PROGRAMME AS WELL AS THE REALISATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMME OF THE PURVIEW AND THE NEEDS FOR INFORMATION OF TRANSPORT SYSTEM ENTITIES. DIFFERENT DEVELOPMENT FACTORS WILL BE CONSIDERED, WHILE OTHER...

RE Vancea RR Priceb F Barthelc

A Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada b OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris, France c Private Consultant, Burgdorf, Germany Abstract. In the early 1960s, a group of experts from national atomic energy organizations was organized by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to evaluate uranium resources in an economic perspective, under the auspices of the then European Nuclear Energy Agency. Reports prepared by these experts, known as the Uranium Group, are based on data submitted by national authorities and published biennially under the title Uranium Resources, Production and Demand , more commonly known as the Red Book . Since its inception more than 40 years ago, the activities of the Uranium Group have grown beyond the original mandate. Although the focus of the Red Book remains uranium resources, production and demand, Uranium Group members have also produced volumes in recent years on environmental activities and remediation of uranium mining...

Economic activity and the determination of residuals flows

In principle, industrial process models of the kind developed by Resources for the Future (RFF) should yield the most accurate estimates of residuals discharges at the individual plant level and at the regional level, and the relevant methodologies are highly commended in this review. It is worth noting, nevertheless, that the RFF approach is suitable only in certain contexts. Activity levels are assumed to already exist, and an optimal REQM strategy is sought in an essentially static production situation. Future projections could of course be made, and either a comparative statics or dynamic programming approach adopted, but a commensurate increase in data requirements and modeling effort must also be expected. The costs of complex dynamic optimization models are invariably high, although they have been borne by various member countries of the OECD in their development of national energy system assessment models International Energy Agency (1980) .

Listing the Submarkets

Just as for a market, there is no simple recipe for the definition of a submarket. If a day-ahead energy market contains two zones, then different suppliers will sell into each zone and there will be two prices. Clearly there are two products energy delivered to zone 1 and energy delivered to zone 2. Should these be considered different submarkets That may prove convenient, but when there are 500 locations with different prices it will be necessary to count it as a single multiproduct

Public Day Ahead Energy Submarket

The question is not whether a DA energy market belongs on the list. If the system operator does not provide one, a private market will develop. But from the market designer's perspective, the question of whether the system operator will run a DA energy market is crucial. For this reason the public and private DA energy submarkets should be considered distinct. If a public DA market is added to the list, there will still be the question, discussed in Section 1-8.2, of what type of If a centralized DA energy market is left off the list, a decentralized market must certainly be included because one will develop and play an important role in the entire market. Even with a centralized DA market, a private bilateral market is likely

Energy vs Transmission Submarkets

Perhaps the most fundamental controversy concerning which submarkets belong in a power market concerns the question of whether the system operator should operate an energy market or a transmission-rights market. One view holds that the system operator is only needed to operate the grid and sell rights to its use, but it should minimize its role in the market and refrain from trading or pricing energy. A centralized transmission-rights market belongs on the list, but a centralized energy market does not. The extreme version of this view would eliminate not only the centralized DA energy market just discussed but also a centralized real-time (RT) The opposing view holds that such an architecture, plausible in a simplified theoretical world, is wholly impractical. At least in real time, the system operator needs to buy and sell energy directly and needs to set different prices for energy provided at different locations. A real-time locational energy market should be on the list. The...

Gas use and gas production within the EU

Within the EU, gas production, supply and user infrastructure have tended to be developed on the basis of individual countries' own reserves, and in relation to diverse national energy policies. Hence gas use varies markedly between countries both in its contribution to total primary energy supply (TPES), and in final consumption. The share of natural gas in the EU energy supply mix, has grown from 10 of TPES in 1973 to 25 in 2005. In the period between 1990 and 2005 gas use grew by 50 . The United Kingdom, Germany and Italy are the major gas users, and Italy is the most gas dependent major country in the EU in terms of share of TPES (38 ). Gas provides some 28 of industrial energy needs EU wide, and more than a third of residential and commercial needs, being especially important in space heating. In the power sector its role has increased sharply from barely 7 of power output in 1990, to more than 20 in 2005. This trend is expected to continue since gas has become the preferred...

Market Types Bilateral through Pools

Some markets work better as one type and some as another. In the heat of debate, those favoring bilateral markets often imply that exchanges are in some way like central planning, socialism, or even communism, but these analogies contribute little. Often the right answer is for an entire market to utilize both approaches side-by-side. The long-term energy market utilizes a bilateral forward market that trades individualized forward contracts and centralized futures exchanges that trade standardized futures contracts. The transaction cost of trading in the forward market is greater but provides flexibility while trading in the futures market provides no flexibility in contract form but is inexpensive. Bilateral markets can be either direct search markets or brokered markets and can be more or less centralized. If the market is brokered, as is the housing market, the brokers do not actually buy or sell in the market but are paid a commission for arranging a trade. Some forward energy...

Challenges and emerging technology

Mining in India has come a long way from conventional system to trackless mining, progressively emulating and absorbing global technology. In the existing mines, pneumatic equipment are systematically being phased out with the introduction of more energy efficient electro-hydraulic and diesel-hydraulic equipment. New mines are being planned with provision to automate all strenuous mining activities avoiding direct handling of radioactive ore at every stage of operation. Underground ventilation system, strata control measures etc are being simulated before field trial and implementation. The bulk ore assaying system with automatic grade estimation is undergoing continuous improvement. Country's dedicated mining research institutes have identified some of the thrust areas like cutting technology in place of conventional drilling & blasting, use of electronic detonators, environment friendly explosives etc for future development. Keeping in view the worldwide technological progress in...

Comparison with Previous Estimates

Our results are compared to those stated in other studies in Table 3.4. As recommended by Caves et al. (1990) and Woo and Pupp (1992) we report outage costs in both absolute dollars and in terms of dollars per kwh unserved, using additional information provided by the Utility on energy consumption by a prototypical household for the season and time period of consideration.

Activities implemented jointly

By June 2002, 157 AIJ projects had been communicated to the secretariat, engaging just under a third of Parties to the Convention, either as investors or as host countries.9 While the absence of crediting may have discouraged business involvement (in 1999, only 8 per cent of projects were being financed through the private sector10), interest in the AIJ pilot phase has steadily grown, especially since the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol. Most projects are in the renewable energy and energy efficiency sectors, although the largest projects involve forest preservation, reforestation or restoration. An important political challenge has been regional imbalance. Although the situation has improved, over 80 per cent of projects are still concentrated in the EITs (in particular the Baltic states) and Latin America and the Caribbean.

Time Factor in Elasticity Analysis

In the long run, however, an increase in power rates can have a substantial effect on electricity demand. Residential users will buy new and more energy-efficient air conditioners, furnaces, dishwashers, and other appliances. As electricity rates rise, many consumers also add insulation or temperature-control devices that limit energy use. All such actions reduce the consumer's long-run demand for power. When energy costs rise, industrial users often switch to natural gas or other energy sources, employ less energy-intensive production methods, or relocate to areas where electric costs are lower. The ultimate effect of a price increase on electricity demand may be substantial, but it might take years before its full impact is felt.

Technical Supplement Example of a Bottom Line Test

The stated purpose of the design focuses only on the linkage between this market and the market for generation plants, and it ignores linkages to the energy market. Although these linkages deserve testing, for simplicity, the example will test only the effect of the rules on the location of new power plants.

Historical perspective

In 1954 the United States Government passed the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 establishing the Atomic Energy Agency. This Act of the U.S. Congress changed the U.S. Government emphasis from nuclear weapons to peaceful uses for atomic energy. This marked the start of the government sponsored development of uranium for nuclear power fuel. However, the Soviet Union did not change it's emphasis completely until Perestroika during the late 1980's under Gorbachov. In 1963 the U.S. In 1963, with few nuclear power plants operating, the price of uranium collapsed when the U.S. Government stopping buying uranium. The U.S. Government had underestimated the strength of the Commercial Market. The famous so called uranium cartel started it's operations as the Uranium Institute as producers tried to continue operations by distributing a limited market demand. Most of the producers at this time were funded or subsidized by Governments or were subsidiaries of large mining companies, mining gold or other...

Duree Des Travaux Forecast Duration I 19980630

RESUME - ABSTRACT I OBJECTIVE VARIOUS ACTIONS COULD BE STARTED IN ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM VIA REVERSIBLE AND FLEXIBLE MEASURES IN ORDER TO OBTAIN ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR. THE PROJECT AIMS TO DEMONSTRATE THE POSSIBILITY OF SAVING ENERGY BY TRANSPORT SYSTEM RATIONALISATION WITH COMBINED AND INTEGRATED ACTIONS ON TRAFFIC AND MOBILITY. THE MAIN OBJECTIVES ARE THE FOLLOWING REVIEW AND INVESTIGATE THE TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS AND THE INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES IN THE TRANSPORT SEC- TOR REGARDING ENERGY EFFICIENCY DEVISE A COMMON ANALYTCAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING AND EVALUATING DIFFERENT MIX OF MEASURES ENABLE A COMPARISON, IN TERMS OF ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY, ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND SOCIAL EQUITY, OF REVERSIBLE AND FLEXIBLE MEASURES TO SUPPORT THE PUBLIC MANAGER IN URBAN PLANNING CHOICES DEFINE POLICY IMPLICATION FOR ENERGY SAVING RELATED TO SOFT INTERVENTIONS ON TRAFFIC AND MOBILITY FACILITATE ONGOING COMMUNICATION BETWEEN EU MEMBER STATES AND...

Choice Of Fuels In The Transport Sector An Energy Logistical Systems Analysis

RESUME - ABSTRACT THE PROJECT AIMS AT IDENTIFYING PARAMETERS AND VARIABLES AS WELL AS DEVELOPING A MODEL FOR VALUATING MOTOR FUELS FROM AN ENERGY LOGISTIC PERSPECTIVE, I.E. QUANTIFYING ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING DIFFERENT FUELS FOR SPECIFIC TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS. THE WORK WILL FOCUS ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR AND ATTEMPT TO INCREASE THE KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TO APPLY THE ENERGY CONCEPT TO BETTER ALLOCATE USE OF ENERGY IN SOCIETY. DESCRIPTEURS - KEYWORDS SWEDEN MOTOR FUEL FUEL AND POWER SOURCES ENERGY CONSUMPTION ENERGY CONSERVATION TRANSPORT MODEL EVALUATION

Technologies For Carbondioxide Neutral Transportation System

RESUME - ABSTRACT THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO COMPARE DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS (ENERGY SOURCES, ENERGY CARRIERS, VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES), WHICH CAN CONTRIBUTE TO A CO2-NEUTRAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM. THE SYSTEMS WILL BE ANALYSED WITH REGARD TO THEIR FEASIBILITY, ENERGY EFFICIENCY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND COSTS. NECESSARY PREREQUISITES FOR THE DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGIES TO BE COMPETITIVE TO EACH OTHER AND TO FOSSIL-FUEL BASED SYSTEMS ARE IDENTIFIED. THE EVALUATION OF THE TECHNOLOGIES ARE MADE BY COMPARISONS WITH TODAY'S TECHNOLOGIES, AND BY COMPARING FUTURE TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS WITH EACH OTHER.

Environmetal impact assessment

Nuclear energy systems can and do have effects (thermal, radiation, chemical and physical) on the environment. The main impacts have arisen in the past at the front end of the fuel cycle, namely uranium or thorium mining and milling and at the back end from poorly managed radioactive waste. Severe accidents and their impacts remain a public concern. In choosing energy options, perceived environmental and health impact, and hence the lack of acceptance, has been recognised as one of the critical issues for the development of nuclear energy systems. This is in contrast to the actual environmnetal and health impact arising from e.g. fossil fuel-based energy systems. If it can be demonstrated that environmental and health impacts can be kept within acceptable limits, together with other critical factors (such as cost, safety including waste safety, resources availability and supply security, proliferation risks) the nuclear energy option has a potential to be further deployed and accepted...

Supply security and optimisation of resources use

Environment will help to better utilise resources and at the same time help to reduce impacts from their use. Material flow accounting (MFA) will also indicate critical pathways and uses for which no alternatives exist. Widening the scope to the sources of materials will also indicate competing users for the same resource. It needs to be remembered, however, that sources and users and, hence, pathways may change over time. Flowpath can be very complex for instance, a country may critically depend on the primary flow of a particular raw material from the outside, or export a material for processing to later import the product. Predicting flows for nuclear energy systems may require a demand and supply forecast for a range of other industries or countries in order to evaluate competitions.

Insight four creating economic incentives

Are two favourite tools that can be used to price carbon emissions (these are both investigated in more detail in Chapter 6). People respond to these new prices by switching to less-carbon-intensive fuels (e.g. natural gas for coal) increasing energy efficiency per unit of output by using less-energy-intensive technologies adopting technologies to reduce emissions reducing the production of high-cost, carbon-intensive goods increasing the sequestration of carbon and developing and refining new technologies (e.g. renewable energy resources).

Model For The Development Of Freight Transport

THE ENERGY RESEARCH PROGRAMME, AMALIEGADE 44, DK-1256, COPENHAGEN K., DENMARK, RESUME - ABSTRACT THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO DEVELOP A MODEL DESCRIBING THE TRANSPORT SECTOR IN THE NATIONAL FORECAST MODEL ADAM IN GENERAL AND THE FREIGHT TRANSPORT IN PARTICULAR. THE MODEL WILL BE IMPLEMENTED AS A SATELLITE MODEL TO THE MODEL SYSTEM ADAM AND THE OUTPUT IS ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS OF CO2, NOX SO4 ETC. DIFFERENT RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DEVELOPMENT IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY AND THE REGISTERED TRANSPORT WILL BE EXAMINED.

Why Power Markets Fail

With the first failure, the system operator must set price because the market cannot with the second it should set price because the market sets it at more than power is worth. Because of the second demand-side flaw (Section 1-1.5) no customer will pay more than the highest price the system operator pays for power. So the limit on the system operator*s price limit caps the price in all energy markets. This occurs through arbitrage and without any regulatory restrictions except the limit on how high a price the

Dependent and Explanatory Variables

In this paper, environmental product innovations mean the planned introduction of an environmentally improved or a new environmentally friendly product (e.g. solvent-free paints or energy efficient products such as cars or washing machines) to the market by the end of 2005. Environmental process innovations mean the planned realization of a more environmentally friendly composition of one or more firm-internal processes (e.g. water recycling or flue gas desulphurization) in this period (independent of the realization of environmental product innovations). As aforementioned, three-alternative and four-alternative discrete choice models are examined. Concerning the three-alternative case, environmental innovation type j 1 comprises both an environmental product and a process innovation and j 2 contains either an environmental product or a process innovation, but not both types together. The basic choice alternative j 3 comprises neither an environmental product nor a process innovation....

The Peaking or FirmingUp Plant

13Davidson is director of power generation and transportation systems, Gas Research Institute, and Braun is director of advanced energy systems research, Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Davidson, K.G. and Braun, G.W., Thinking Small On site Power Generation May Soon Be Big, Public Utilities Fortnightly, July 1, 1993.

Ev And Hev Technologies Evaluation Program

RESUME - ABSTRACT THE OBJECTIVE OF THE PROGRAM IS TO ASSESS ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE (HEV) TECHNOLOGIES, THE CURRENT STATE OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND THE POTENTIAL BENEFITS THEY OFFER IN TERMS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND OPERATIONAL ASPECTS TO EXPLORE THE EV OPERATING ABILITY IN THE COLD CLIMATES TYPICALLY FOUND IN CANDA TO ACQUIRE THE KNOWLEDGE NECESSARY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EV SAFETY STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS AND THE APPROPRIATE POLICIES RELATED TO EVS TO IDENTIFY AND PROMOTE CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL CAPABILITIES IN EV TRANSPORTATION TECHNOLOGIES.

REE analyses methodology

The instrumental conditions used for REE analyses in uranium oxides with the CAMECA IMS 3f ion microprobe are similar to those described in 8 9 . The samples of uranium oxides analysed were prepared as gold coated thin section or section of some millimeters in thickness. A 10 kV O- primary beam of 10 nA intensity was focussed to a spot of 30 m in diameter. The secondary ions emitted (Ca+, Pb+, U+, UO+, UO2+ mainly) were accelerated at 4 500 eV. The intensity of these REE isotopes were analysed at the lowest possible mass resolution under conditions of energy filtering at 80 eV to reduce the contribution of LREE oxide isobaric interferences at the HREE masses 8 . The low energy filtering avoids high counting rates when there are interferences due to complex molecules formation. The magnet was cyclically peak-stepped on 31 masses between mass 89 (89Y+) and mass 251 (235UO), including the background, mass 235 (235U+) and masses of all significant REE isotopes (Table I). The counting time...

Purchase by a Utility

16 Wholesale wheeling or transmission access is already required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. FERC can require a utility to transmit power from an EWG to a purchasing utility (a wholesale customer of the EWG). But retail wheeling, to an end-user customer, is still to be mandated. Public Utilities Commission of the State of California, Order of April 20, 1994, op. cit.

Result 272 Steeper Profit Functions Increase Risk and Market Power

Section 4 Comparing the Two Approaches. Price spikes are sensitive to load fluctuations while capacity markets are not. By eliminating this source of risk, the capacity approach makes it easier to control reliability and suppress market power in the energy market. Price-spike systems have the advantage of sending efficient price signals to the demand side of the market and to expensive existing

Combining a Capacity Requirement with a Price Spike

If an optimal price spike approach is combined with an optimal capacity approach, the result is a market that builds too much ICap. At the optimal ICap value, generators would cover their fixed-costs twice, once in the energy market and once in the capacity market This would encourage more investment, and ICap would rise above

Household Demand For Alternative Fuel Cars Ownership And

RESUME - ABSTRACT OWNERSHIP AND USE OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL CARS IS A FUNCTION OF ATTRIBUTES OF BOTH 'ALTERNATIVE' AND CONVENTIONAL CARS (COSTS, FUEL AVAILABILITY, RANGE, EMISSIONS ETC). THE PROJECT AIMS AT DEVELOPING THEORETICALLY SOUND MODELS, TO BE USED FOR E.G. POLICY EVALUATION, OF THESE RELATIONSHIPS. OWNERSHIP AND USE OF CONVENTIONAL CARS ARE TREATED SIMULTANEOUSLY, WHICH ENABLES ESTIMATION OF FINAL EFFECTS ON ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS. THE MODELS ARE BASED ON HYPOTHETICAL DATA ON THE ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL CARS, IN COMBINATION WITH OBSERVED DATA ON PRESENT CAR OWNERSHIP AND USE. THE PROJECT WILL COMPRISE DESCRIPTEURS - KEYWORDS SWEDEN CAR OWNING MOTORCAR FUEL AND POWER SOURCES ENERGY CONSUMPTION EXHAUST GAS AIR POLLUTION

Industrial dispute J5

Industrialization (O1) A stage in development consisting of shifting resources from agriculture into manufacturing. It is variously measured by manufacturing's percentage share of gross domestic product, gross industrial output per capita, energy consumption per capita or industrial exports as a percentage of total exports. To finance industrialization, extra real resources are necessary these can be found by obtaining foreign exchange through increasing agricultural and manufactured exports or by increasing the domestic rate of savings. Although this is still an issue in Third World countries, the countries of the organization FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT are more concerned with de-industrialization and the switch of resources into the service sector.

System components

The system elements composing parabolic trough power plants comprise collector, absorber, heat transfer fluid circuit and power block. Collectors. The collectors which are typically 100 m, but may nowadays also be 150 m long, are provided with single-axis solar tracking. The annual mean cosine losses of parabolic troughs vary between 10 and 13 , whereas those of Fresnel concepts are double. After deduction of the optical and thermal losses inside the collector 40 to 70 of the radiation incident on the mirrors can be used technically. The percentage depends on the design, the field size and on the geographic location of the power plant. In the following, the main collector types are discussed.

Fanny Missfeldt and Jochen Hauff

Unlike what may be expected from a formerly centrally planned economy, Poland was one of the first European countries to experiment with the idea of emissions trading. In 1991, the Economics Department of the Ministry of the Environment initiated a project which attempted to show the potential of a tradable permit approach. Due to the absence of emission permits in Polish environmental legislation, the project took the form of negotiations of standards between a steel mill, a power plant, local small-scale heat producers and the local environmental administrator. The negotiations resulted in stricter standards for the steel mill, which had relatively low abatement cost, but looser emissions standards for the power plant, having only high-cost abatement options. Also, some of the local boiler houses were closed, and the power plant extended its heat deliveries instead. The firms and municipal agencies accepted this arrangement as the power plant paid additional fees for its increased...

Its Technologies And Applications

RESUME - ABSTRACT A PROGRAM OF RESEARCH IN INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITS) IN ROAD TRANSPORTATION THAT WILL STIMULATE THE IMPLEMENTAION OF ITS IN CANADA IMPROVE MOBILITY AND INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF THE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM LEAD TO SUBSTANTIAL ENERGY SAVING AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS ASSIST CANADIAN INDUSTRY IN TAKING ADVANTAGE OF THIS IMPORTANT NEW MARKET AREA. THE FOLLOWING TYPES OF ACTIVITY ARE COVERED TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT IN AREAS WHERE CANADIAN INDUSTRY IS LIKELY TO BENEFIT FROM THE RESULTS DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF NEW APPLICATIONS PARTICIPATION IN OPERATIONAL FIELD TESTS OF KEY SYSTEMS TO ENCOURAGE THE DEPLOYMENT OF UMPROVEN TECHNOLOGIES RELATED STANDARDS WORK TO ENSURE THAT THESE SYSTEMS ARE COMPATIBLE WITH EACH OTHER ACROSS CANADA AND WITH CONTINENT-WIDE NORTH AMERICAN SYSTEMS. SIX PROJECTS ARE IDENTIFIED FOR CONTINUATION OR INITIATION IN 1998-99. DESCRIPTEURS - KEYWORDS CANADA INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ROAD TRAFFIC TRAFFIC...

Why Real Time Markets Are Not Purely Bilateral

Most markets operate under a regime of pure bilateral trade, so it is reasonable to ask why RT electricity markets do not. The answer is related to the provision of the ancillary services described in Chapter 3-4. Some of these must be provided by the RT energy market, and a bilateral market is not well suited to their provision. The critical issue is speed. Bilateral markets are slow to make complex trades. Centralized markets are quick largely because they can take full advantage of the homogeneity of electric power.

The Impacts Of Climate Extremes On The Tourism Sector Across Europe The Wise Project

A recent, European Commission sponsored study addresses the impacts of extreme weather events on tourism across Europe, using time series of tourism and weather data in selected European countries. The tourism impact study is part of a wider project (the WISE project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems), conducted in 1997-99 in four European countries, namely Italy, the UK, Germany and the Netherlands. The project addresses the evaluation of the overall impact of extreme weather events on the natural, social and economic systems in Europe, and provides, where possible, a monetary evaluation of these impacts. Beside tourism, the other key sectors studied in the project include agriculture, energy consumption, forest fires and health.

Product Standards and Free Trade

The specification of product performance standards, such as those governing automobile emissions, industrial effluents, energy consumption, or size and weight limitations on agricultural products, can act as more subtle, but equally damaging, impediments to free trade. Product design standards that differ in ways that make selling

Economic and environmental analysis

The following considerations are aimed at assessing solar updraft tower power plants according to economic and environmental parameters. Economic analysis. Power generation costs for solar updraft tower power plants are also calculated in line with the method applied throughout this book. Following this, the costs for construction and operation are determined and distributed in the form of annuities over the technical lifetime of the power plant. Power generation costs are calculated on the basis of these depreciations and the generated electrical energy. For this purpose, a technical lifetime of 25 years and an interest rate of 4.5 have been assumed. In practice, solar updraft towers are designed for longer technical lifetimes (e.g. the tower for 60 years). The energy output of a solar updraft tower power plant is proportional to global radiation, collector surface and tower height. In this respect, there is no physical optimum thus it is necessary to optimise dimensions according to...

The tragedy of the commons

Because greenhouse gases result from so many different types of activity that are spread over a far greater number of countries, adjustment would not be limited to one small sector of the economy. A more fundamental problem is that requiring reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and a consequent sacrifice in GDP, is resisted by developing countries. They regard the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as the responsibility of developed countries that accounted for much of that accumulation through their industrialization and progressively higher energy usage over the past two centuries. Denying developing countries their opportunity to industrialize on the grounds of modern environmental awareness and eco-imperialism is rejected as the basis of an agreement that will lead to an unjust distribution of benefits and costs.

Note on Generating Plants

Cogeneration is a subset of distributed generation. It consists of the use of a heat engine, such as a combined-cycle turbine, to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat. The excess heat is used in the manufacture of the product produced by the operator. This heat is wasted in a conventional power plant.

Key insights from studies using the GCubed model

In a study for the United Nations University, Bagnoli, McKibbin and Wilcoxen (1996) found that in a future horizon of 30 years, the assumptions about structural change are crucial for understanding the energy intensity of various economies. Using the model, the authors made two projections of the world economy from 1990 to 2020. The first projection assumed that all sectors in the economy experienced the same rate of technical change as the economy as a whole but this differed across economies with developing economies growing more quickly than developed economies. The second set of assumptions was that the differences in sectoral technical change followed the historical pattern scaled so that each economy had the same average economy wide GDP growth rate as in the first scenario. The result was a dramatically different degree of energy intensity in each representation of the world economy by 2020. Countries had approximately the same GDP growth rates in both scenarios (by assumption)...

Development And Demonstration Of Sustainable Transportation Control

RESUME - ABSTRACT THE EFFICIENT PROVISION OF MOBILITY OF PERSONS AND GOODS SHOULD DIRECTLY CONSIDER THE ENERGY CONSUMED, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, AND THE ECONOMIC COSTS INVOLVED IN PROVIDING TRANSPORTATION. THIS IS NOT TRUE IN THE TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROLLER INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES TODAY. WHILE MICROELECTRONICS HAVE BEEN IMPROVED IN THE TRAFFIC SIGNAL SYSTEMS, THE FUNDAMENTAL SIGNAL CONTROL STRATEGY USED TODAY REMAINS LOCKED IN THE OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS OF THE 1960S, WHEN EXPLICIT CONSIDERATIONS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS (E.G., ON AIR QUALITY) WERE NIL. DESCRIPTEURS - KEYWORDS USA ROAD TRAFFIC TRAFFIC CONTROL SIGNS AND SIGNALS ENERGY CONSUMPTION ENVIRONMENT IMPACT STUDY

The Market for Operating Reserves

A MARKET FOR OPERATING RESERVES PAYS GENERATORS TO BEHAVE DIFFERENTLY FROM HOW THE ENERGY MARKET SAYS THEY SHOULD. If generators are cheap and will produce at full output, the market might tell them to produce less. If they are too expensive to produce at all, it may tell them to start spinning, and this may require them to produce at a substantial level. Its purpose is to increase reliability and moderate price spikes. Chapter Summary 3-10 Not maximizing profits in the energy market is an opportunity cost, and generators must be paid for this to secure their cooperation. There are two philosophies (1) have the system operator calculate this value from the real-time price and pay them accordingly (2) have the generators guess this value and include it in their bids. The first approach may be quite susceptible to gaming while the second is optimal in theory but risky for generators in practice and may increase the randomness of the outcome.

Types of Operating Reserve

The three operating reserve markets are tightly linked to each other and to the energy market. California demonstrated the folly of pretending differently and managed to pay 9,999 MWh for a class of reserves lower than 30-minute nonspin at times when the highest quality reserves were selling for under 50 MWh.4 This chapter will not consider the problem of how the markets should be linked, although the most straightforward suggestion is to clear all three simultaneously using a single set of bids that can be applied to any of the markets.

Scoring by Expected Cost

While this would seem to make the expected-cost auction entirely useless, a closer look is required. The probability, h, of selling energy from the accepted reserve capacity depends on the energy price of the accepted bid. Suppose the system operator uses an h that is intermediate. Those who believe their h will be lower, will enter very low energy bids. This will make their probability of use, h, higher than h, in contradiction of their assumption, and their strategy will prove ineffective. This self-limiting effect does not eliminate the problems of gaming but provides some hope for expected-cost auction design.

Scoring Based on the Capacity Bid Only

The best theoretical work on spinning-reserve auctions (Chao and Wilson 1999b) suggests the energy-price part of the bid should be ignored when accepting bids, and winning bids should be those with the lowest capacity-cost values regardless of their energy-price bids. This surprising result is based on the observation that suppliers of spin with a low cost of energy will profit from the spin energy market when more expensive spinning reserve is called. This gives them a strong incentive to be selected in the spin auction and they will submit a capacity bid, CCbid, lower than their capacity cost, CC, in order to win the auction. In this way, the relatively low cost of their energy bid, FCbid, is indirectly accounted for when the auctioneer A key advantage of capacity scoring is that it makes the energy part of the bid irrelevant for winning acceptance as spinning reserve. Competitive bidders will consider only the spin energy market when they set their energy bids and so will Since...

Inframarginal Reserve Capacity

Redefme the type 1 supplier in the previous example to be an inframarginal steam unit. This changes both the cost of using this generator and the generator's bidding strategy. First consider its strategy. Instead of comparing its profit in the spin market to zero profit, the inframarginal generator compares it with its profit in the spot energy market. If accepted in the spin auction, it would be paid its capacity bid, CCbid_,, plus (VC2 - VC ) with probability h. In the spot market it would

The evolution of the standard of static efficiency a critical analysis

Moreover, the main practical application of physics emerged in the development of mechanical engineering, which was built entirely on the (static) concept of energy efficiency, defined by engineers as the 'minimization of energy waste'. The steam engine, which became the classic capital good in the Industrial Revolution, provides an excellent example. The steam engine transforms heat into movement and the lifting of weights, the goal of all good mechanical engineers being maximum (static) efficiency, or maximum movement with minimum energy consumption or waste. Perhaps at this time it is most important to highlight the negative influence which the static conception of energy efficiency has exerted on the development of economics. Hans Mayer12 and Philip Mirowski have pointed out that neoclassical economics developed as a copy of nineteenth-century mechanical physics using the same formal method, yet replacing the concept of energy with that of utility and applying the...

Partial equilibrium theory

The results discussed above are derived from models where it is assumed that an exogenously given rate of technological change is unbiased (that is, affects all inputs equally). In particular, it is usually assumed that there is an exogenously given rate of so-called autonomous energy efficiency improvement. It is also assumed that all world markets are perfectly competitive. These assumptions have been modified in a number of studies and the impact on model results is now considered. Since a carbon tax would increase the relative price of energy, the induced innovations hypothesis implies that technological change would be biased towards economizing on the use of energy inputs. Although only the bias and not the overall rate of technological change is affected, simulation results show that the improvement in energy efficiency can significantly reduce welfare losses in meeting abatement targets. In fact, in some simulations of CGE models under the induced innovations hypothesis,...

Control of regional environmental quality

The list of residuals reduction processes in industry shown in Table 7.2 is based on Kneese, Ayres and d'Arge (1970) and Luken et al. (1976), with some additions. Making better use of the environment's assimilative capacity may be achieved by controlling the spatial and temporal distribution of discharges and activities. Examples of spatial control of residuals discharges are the use of high chimney stacks or slurry pipelines. Temporal control of residuals discharges is illustrated by regulation of BOD discharges from a pulp and paper mill to maintain dissolved oxygen in receiving waters at an acceptable level. Activities may be controlled in temporal terms by appropriate production scheduling. Location of activities to regulate regional environmental quality has received a great deal of attention. The literature includes studies of power plant siting Mendelsohn (1979, and be operated at nonnegative levels, linear programming is an acceptable method for optimizing residuals management...

Assessing environmental additionality

Even determining the environmental additionality of a project may be subject to uncertainties, and seeming contradictions. For example, a project may be inherently climate friendly, such as generating electricity from wind power, or increasing the energy efficiency of an industrial process. But this climate-friendly project may have gone ahead in the absence of JI and CDM and in this case would not in principle be eligible for crediting. At the other extreme, a JI or CDM project may actually result in more GHGs being emitted than the pre-project scenario, but may still result in a smaller increase in GHG emissions than in a non-project scenario. Such a project would be considered 'additional' and eligible to generate emissions credits under JI or CDM. The Marrakech Accords would count both project types as 'additional'.

The Common Agricultural Policy CAP and the environment

Concessional loan A type of loan offered to a country to assist, among other things, environmentally sound development. These loans are usually offered at very low rates of interest. In September 1997, for example, Japan gave a loan on very preferential terms to strengthen Egyptian efforts to combat global warming. The projects considered eligible for such loans include energy saving technologies, new and renewable energy sources, forest conservation, and measures against air pollution oda s-loan.html). cross-media approach An integrated approach to addressing environmental problems which takes into account interrelationships between various elements (components) of the environment, such as air, water and soil. (See also medium-by-medium approach). It is important to avoid improving quality standards in one environmental medium at the expense of other media. A cross-media approach recognizes the integrated nature of the environment, seeks to reduce the overall pollution at source by...

Application The Enron Bankruptcy and the Baa Aaa Spread

In December 2001, the Enron Corporation, a firm specializing in trading in the energy market, and once the seventh-largest corporation in the United States, was forced to declare bankruptcy after it became clear that it had used shady accounting to hide its financial problems. (The Enron bankruptcy, the largest ever in the United States, will be discussed further in Chapter 8.) Because of the scale of the bankruptcy and the questions it raised about the quality of the information in accounting statements, the Enron collapse had a major impact on the corporate bond market. Let's see how our supply and demand analysis explains the behavior of the spread between interest rates on lower quality (Baa-rated) and highest quality (Aaa-rated) corporate bonds in the aftermath of the Enron failure.

Paper IV Future Danish oil and gas export

In this paper a field-by-field analysis of existing oil and gas fields is used to determine Denmark's future production potential. The production contribution from new field developments is also estimated as well as from undiscovered oil and gas deposits. The overall aim is to analyze the production behavior of Danish oil and gas fields. From this, possible future production profiles are created, where historical experience is applied to future developments. The Danish Energy Agency (DEA) makes forecasts for future Danish oil and gas production. A thorough examination of their data and establishment of an independent forecast for comparative purposes could prove beneficial for both planners and policy makers. Consequently, this study also aims to perform an independent review of the DEA forecast to determine if they have arrived at a reasonable estimate range or not.

Choosing a monitoring methodology

Inventories26 can be used to calculate emissions from industrial processes or direct fuel use. The International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol for energy efficiency projects27 can be used to assess the electricity 'saved' by some types of energy efficiency projects. The WRI WBCSD Greenhouse Gas Protocol for corporate accounting28 also gives useful guidance as to what to include and exclude from project boundaries. These methods, as well as national or regional monitoring standards, can all be applied to some extent to calculating the impacts of JI CDM projects.

Projects With A Gef Component

The projects considered for this section concentrate on the environmental and natural resources management theme. Also, these projects are at least partly supported by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as facilitator and funding mechanism for integrating global concerns into the development process, and by the World Bank as the implementing agency for the GEF. From the fiscal years 1992 to 2003, on average, the Bank approved 15 projects and provided GEF grants worth 138 million annually. Some of the funds served as complements to Bank lending and other co-financing resources, mainly in the areas of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the promotion of energy efficiency and renewable energy development.

The City Centre With Transport Built Environment And Development Control In Focus

RESUME - ABSTRACT FACTORS INFLUENCING TRANSFER OF TRAVEL BY CAR TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT, BICYCLE AND WALKING TRIPS IN MAJOR URBAN AREAS ARE STUDIED THROUGH PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION, LITERATURE REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT STRATEGIES AND MEASURES ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND OTHER FACTORS. SUPPLEMENTARY HOUSEHOLD INTERVIEWS AND POSTAL SURVEYS ARE THEN PERFORMED AND METHODOLOGY AND MODELS ARE DEVELOPED FOR EVALUATION OF PUBLIC AND INDIVIDUAL CONSEQUENCES OF SELECTED MEASURES. THE MODEL IS THEN USED TO RANK PROPOSALS FOR FEASIBLE METHODS, WHICH ARE TESTED THROUGH PILOT STUDIES IN COLLABORATION WITH CONCERNED AUTHORITIES AND AGENIES IN THE STOCKHOLM AREA.

S Saint Pierrea RPWG members

The current ICRP draft proposal, which is entitled 2005 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection , was presented in May 2004 at a key international conference called IRPA-11. This proposal emerged from two earlier forums jointly organized by ICRP and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Moreover, following IRPA-11, ICRP launched an open consultation on its draft proposal that ended in December 2004.

The Extent of Evasion

The second general method is to infer the extent of tax evasion, or the hidden economy generally, from the observation of another economic variable. This is done by determining total economic activity then subtracting measured activity to gives the hidden economy. The direct input approach observes the use of an input to production and from this predicts what output must be. An input which is often used for this purpose is electricity since this universally employed and accurate statistics are kept on energy consumption. The monetary approach employs the demand for cash to infer the size of the hidden economy on the basis that transactions in the hidden economy are financed by cash rather than cheques or credit. Given a relationship between the quantity of cash and the level of economic activity. This allows estimation of the hidden economy.

The Influence Of Ecological Protection Demands

RESUME - ABSTRACT PROTECTION OF ENVIRONMENT HAS RECENTLY BECOME EVEN MORE IMPORTANT. ECOLOGICALY DAMAGING SITUATIONS FOR SEA ENVIRONMENT, HAPPENS AT LOADING, TRANSPORTATION OR UNLOADING OF DANGEROUS CARGO, BUT THE POLLUTION IS A RESULT OF SHIP'S POWER PRODUCTION PROCESS AND OTHER SYSTEMS ALSO. INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANIZATION (IMO) IS PREPARING CONVENTIONS WHICH WOULD PROPOSE NEW RIGOROUS DEMANDS TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT THIS IS CONNECTED TO DANGEROUS CARGO TRANSPORTATION AND ENERGY SYSTEMS AND THEIR AFFECT ON SEA ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION. THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO SEARCH A SHIP'S ENERGY SYSTEMS OPTIMAL SOLUTION ACCORDINGLY TO FUTURE IMO CONVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS. SHIP PROPULSION SYSTEMS, AUXILIARY SYSTEMS AND THEIR SAFETY WOULD BE OPTIMISED THROUGHOUT EVERY STAGE OF EXPLOITATION. THE VALIDITY OF RESULTS WOULD BE CONDUCT THROUGH COMPARISON WITH EXISTING SYSTEMS AND BY CONTROL IN ACCORDANCE WITH IMO CONVENTIONS ALREADY ACCEPTED OR TO BE ACCEPTED IN A NEAREST FUTURE. THE...

What will the impacts of climate change be on developing countries

Borne diseases (e.g. malaria) and heat related cardiovascular and respiratory diseases (note, there will also be some benefits in places where increased temperatures reduce such impacts). There are also impacts on agriculture, forestry, water use, energy consumption etc., some of which will be positive. The scale of these damages is very difficult to estimate the underlying physical models are still quite primitive and there is great uncertainty about future land use and population distribution, which will have significant effects on the damages caused by climate change. The other factor on which monetary estimates of the damages depend greatly is the discount rate (see Chapter 5). Typically, the models look far into the future and impacts start to get serious around 2030. After that they will continue to be relevant for one hundred years or more. At a high discount rate these damages become insignificant, as can be seen in Table 11.2. If we go from a 0 per cent discount rate to a...

How Central Computation Works

With central calculation, there is no need to issue transmission rights there is only an energy market. This makes trading simpler than in a bilateral market. Another simplification for traders is that they need not look for trading partners or engage in comparison shopping in the energy market everyone trades with the ISO. Consequently, every load customer automatically gets the benefit of every supply bid and every supplier benefits from every demand bid.

How would the Genuine Wealth bank operate

The Genuine Wealth bank model returns the banker to a more noble and integral part of the community, understanding the needs, aspirations and assets of its members to build truly sustainable and vibrant communities. I began to imagine this possibility after talking with Oscar Kjellberg of JAK Bank in his tugboat-home in Stockholm in July of 2003. Oscar was concerned for the future well-being of his bank members from the looming crisis of peak oil. This led us to imagine JAK playing a leadership role in Sweden by helping households finance alternative and renewable energy systems, such as solar, wind, geothermal or micro-hydro systems. Oscar imagined a day when Sweden would be free of its dependence on oil. It is fitting that Sweden's Prime Minister has since announced that Sweden would be take concrete measures to become the first nation to be an oil-free society or no longer dependent on oil by 20 20.54 Somehow, I sense Oscar had a role to play in this, and that JAK may help to...

Geothermal power generation

1882, geothermal power production was invented by Prince P. G. Conti in Lardarello, Italy in 1904. Geothermal power production in Tuscany has continued since then and amounted to 128 MW of installed electrical power in 1942 and to about 790 MW in 2003. In 1958, a small geothermal power plant began operating in New Zealand, in 1959 another in Mexico, and in 1960 commercial production of geothermal power began in the USA within the Geysers Field in California. Today 25 countries use geothermal energy for power production, and the worldwide installed electrical capacity has increased to about 8,930 MW in the year 2004 with an average annual increase of about 17 between the year 1995 and the year 2000 10-6 , 10-11 , 10-12 . One of the main reasons for this success is the base load ability of geothermal power generation.

Definition of the product cycles boundaries

The extent to which the boundaries must encompass indirect impacts is determined by the order of magnitude of their resulting emissions. For example, in theory externalities associated with the construction of plants to make the steel that is used to make coal wagons to transport the coal to the power plants should be included in the power plant's LCA. In reality, however, such externalities are likely to have a relatively insignificant impact. In addition, externalities that pass into another product's boundaries must be excised from the analysis to avoid double counting. For example, the ultimate environmental externality of byproducts of power generation that are fully utilized in another industry fall within the latter's life cycle as soon as product transfer occurs. For each fuel technology cycle, boundaries are likely to vary, particularly in relation to upstream impacts, and consequently derivation of a 'generic' LCA for each technology may be unrealistic. For example,...

The reliability of electricity production

The reliability of electricity production is also an important factor in ensuring compatibility of comparisons of alternative technologies.5 With the exception of some biomass 'fuels', geothermal, tidal barrage and large scale hydropower, renewable energy supplies are intermittent and, to varying degrees, unpredictable.6 To the extent that energy systems must be able to cope with these sources of fluctuations in output, additional system costs will be imposed. Circumstances may arise, therefore, where a LCA must be augmented by incorporation of the backup technology in the analysis. Clearly, if fossil fuel power generation provides this backup, the life cycle emissions of renewables must be augmented accordingly.

A1 Energy from wave motion

- The power plant design also needs to be designed in order to withstand the wave of the century . If a wave energy converter is designed for harnessing waves of a height of 1 m, it also needs to withstand waves of ten times this size. In our case this would be a 10 m wave containing 10 times the above wave energy. The precautions to be taken into consideration necessarily result in considerable additional design costs. applied low-pressure turbine, which is state-of-the-art technology on the markets for power plant equipment, operation of this system is much easier than of most other breaker or wave powered energy exploitation systems. An additional advantage is that the system components applied within this power plant are not subject to open sea conditions, and thus offer a longer technical lifetime. Also the maintenance can be easily conducted. Furthermore, power plant components permanently in motion do not touch the waves, and conversion from kinetic into potential energy is...

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