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Arlidc XI Taxation

Corresponding Amendments

3,6,8,13,17,18,19,2G, 31, 34,42,45, 52, 54-, 56, 59, 60. 63. 65, 66, 69, 70, 72, 74, 76, 84, 04,95, 98, 100, 104, 112, 113, 1 14, 1 16, 117, 11H, 119, 120, 121, 122, 125, 1 2H, 133, 141, 143. 151, 152, 155, 157. 158. 160, 163, 16(3, 174. 183. 186, 189, 190, 193, 195, 197, 198, 199, 208, 209, 213, 217, 219, 221, 222, 224, 230, 23<J, 240, 242, 244, 24H, 250, 251. 254, 256, 259, 261, 262, 263, 2A6, 267, 269, 270, 273, 274, 275, 276. 277, 286, 287, 288. 301. 302, 307, 308, 311, 312. 313, 314, 318, 319, 324, 325, 333, 336, 338, 340, 351, 352, 355, 361. 369, 371, 373, 374, 379, 392, 393, 395, 402, 409, 431, 432. 435,439, 445, 44 G. 458. 461,464, 471, 484. 489. 498, 501, 505, 510, 511, 521, 523, 527, 528, 532, 546, 551, 554, 559, 564, 567, 583, 584, 585, 586, 593, 594, 603, 604, 608, 610, 61 A, A17, 61H, 619, 620, 637, 649, 652, 653, 684, 721, 72H

Article XII Corporations

18,27,29, 30, 36,45, 56, 108, 115, 122, 126, 128, 1H9, 190, 191, 193, 194, 237. 238, 239, 244, 246. 268,277, 280, 300, 301, 325, 342, 343, 35H, 363, 381. 392, 398, 410, 432. 447. 460,463, 464, 46 G. 499, 500, 501, 505, 515, 532, 533, 534, 53A, 541, 623. G27, 643

60, 73, 75, 84, 151, 152, 155, 195, 197, 199, 250.251,256, 302, 303, 308, 3A5, 369, 370, 436. 437,438, 4 G7. 469,473, 516, 517,518, 551, 561, 567,

04, 95, 100, 104, 107, 183, 186, 187, 188, 200, 217, 221, 228, 259, 261. 2G3. 264, 312,313,314,320, 371, 373, 378, 379, 441, 442. 444. 445, 482, 490. 497. 498, 519, 520, 528, 531, 570, 572, 591, A14,

Article XIII Banks and Banking

Arlidc XIV iiducalion

Article XV Militia

Article XVI Oath of Office


Article XVII Miscellaneous Provisions


Arlidc XV1I1 Mode ol Amending the Constitution

Article XIX Special School Tax Amendment

3, 6, 16, 20, 32, 56, 101. 102, 106, 123, 149, 153, 156, 162, 172, 173, 174, 175, 203, 204, 205, 20A, 2G0. 279, 281, 291, 305,309,310,316, 455, 456, 461, 462,

67, 6H, 71, 77, 124. 129. 130, 164, 165, 166, 176, 177, 178, 210, 211, 216, 292. 293. 294, 320, 335, 350, 525, 573, 574,

78, 79, 80, H 2, 131, 145, 146. 167, 168, 160, 179, 180, 181, 218, 232, 234, 295, 29G, 298. 382, 385, 404, 575, 57A, 669,

H6, 98, 99, 147. 148, 170, 171, 182,202, 252, 253, 299. 304, 407, 420, 706. 720

Arlidc XX Koad Bond Issue Amendment

Article XXI Inheritance and lis laic Taxes

Article XXII Income Taxes


Alabama's State Capitals

Alabama has had five capitals. When Alabama became a territory of the United States in '1817, Saint Stephens, in the southwestern part of the territory, was named its temporary capital.

In 1819, however, when the first Constitutional Convention in Alabama met after the territory became a state, the meeting was held in Hunlsville. The first session of the General Assembly was held there, too. Still, since the territori¿d government held chosen Cahiiba (also spelled Cahawba) as its new temporary capital, in 1&2Í), the second session of the General Assemblv met there. Gallaba is therefore considered the first official state

[Vol everyone was happy with Cahaba as the capital, however. A report of a flood in the spring of '1822 mined the town's reputation and made people think that it v-vas an unhealthy and unsafeplaceto have the capital. The 1825-1826 session of the legislature, which had been given the constitutional right to choose a pernuinent capital, chose Tuscaloosa,

T First State Capitol in Cahaba

T First State Capitol in Cahaba


Alsihanwi I Tandbrtnk

A State House in Tuscaloosa located in west Alabama on the shore of the Black Warrior River. Tuscaloosa began to thrive with this new status, and in 1831, the University of Alabama was founded there, helping the city to grow even larger.

But Tuscaloosa was not located where most of the population growth occurred in Alabama. An amendment Lo the constitution, voted on by the people of Alabama, nullified the section of the constitution that had made Tuscaloosa the permanent seat of government. The legislature was then free Lo choose another site. A vote was held in the legislature Lo determine the next site. The city of Montgomery, located on the Alabama River in central Alabama, was chosen.

Tuscaloosa lost much of its growth when it lost its state capital status, as did the other previous capitals, I Iowever, today, it is a thriv-ing city with two colleges and several large hospitals, in addition Lo Lhe University of Alabama's main campus.

Montgomery was formed in 1819 ¿is a result of the merger of Lhe setLlemenLs in KasL Alabama and New Philadelphia. One of the founders of Montgomery, Andrew Dexter, had a piece of


Alsihanwi I Tandbrtnk


land that he had kept, hoping that Montgomery would be chosen for the state capital.

The state Legislature specifically asked tiiat the state not have to pay to find land for its capital. It was easy for Dexter to step forward and offer the land as a site for the capilol building. The name of the site was "Goat Hill/' and although there were many later attempts to rename the location in order to make it sound more dignified, the name was too popular to change.

The capitol building was begun and finished in '1847 in time for the first-ever biennial session. At the beginning of their second session, the building was destroyed by fire. A new building was erected in 1851 on the original site and became the central part of what is still the capilol building in Montgomery.

The building itself has undergone many additions and transformations. In 1885, an east wing was built, increasing the capacity of the site. In '1903, the privately-held property to die south of khe building was purchased for another wing, Li 1911, a north wing was added. The entire building underwent a total restoration in 1992.

Montgomery was named in honor of General Richard Montgomery, who died in the American Re volutionary War trying to capture Quebec, Canada. The city was the site of the swearing in of Jefferson Davis as president of die Confederate States of America in 1861, and was briefly the capital of the Confederacy,

Ytonlgomery is also known for one of its most famous residents, Dr. Martin Lukher King, Jr., who was the pastor of the Dexter Avenue Daptist Church, I lis 1965 march for justice was conducted from Selma, Alabama, to Montgomery. Montgomery remains the capital of Alabama today.

T Current State House in Montgomery


Economic Change in Alabama

The history of Alabama shows that its economy, like most southern states, was largely based on agriculture until the mid-twentieth century. I he famous "Mack Kelt" in the center of die state was known for its cotton plantations. The term "Black Belt" is used to describe the southern cotton growing regions, defined by the color of the soil and of the enslaved workers who worked the fields. The decline of sharecropping and the Depression of the 1930s hit the cotton industry hard. The increasing industrialization of Alabama has affected other farming areas as well, making the state's economy depend more on manufacturing and other modem industries.

Alabama has long been known for its production of cotton, which is still the most widely grown crop in the state. The stale also is a major producer of peanuts, soy products, and other vegetables. Its most valuable product from the agricultural sector, however, is meat. Manv cotton farms have been converted into j poultry and cattle farms.

Alabama's coal industry, once a very important economic factor, is diminishing as mines are being depleted. Alabama's economic transition from coal mining to steel ¿md iron production has helped it enter the automotive industry. Its wealth of mineral resources has led to success in the chemical industry. The state still has large forest areas. J hese supply wood for thriving lumber, pulp, and paper industries.

The original site of the Wright Brothers' flight school is now Maxwell Air Force Dase, a major employer in the Montgomery region. Other military installations contribute to the economy as well. These include the Redstone Arsenal and I-oris Kuckerand McCellan.

The aerospace industry has come to Alabama as well, at the Marshall NASA Space Flight Center in IIuntsville. The computer industry has also found a solid home in Alabama,

Alabama sells billions of dollars worth of goods to countries all over the world. Many of diese goods are loaded onto cargo ships in Alabama's various ports.

AL52 Alsihanui Handbook i p-

T Cargo ship

Alabama's River System

Alabama's river system has been important for shipping goods and for providing much-needed power to its thriving industries. The 234-mile system of locks and canals along the upper I'ombigbee River gives barges transporting heavy goods access to the Gulf of Mexico. Ch is a I lows for tra nsport of good s to a major shipping port of the United States, making it a very important part of Alabama's economic and industrial development.

This increase in economic production has not been without its downfa I Is. i'he Alabama-Co osa-Tallapoosa River Basin, which is a major part of the network of rivers that run to the Gulf of Mexico, was listed in North America's Most Endangered Rivers list of 2000. This was due to the increased need for drinking water in other southern states, as well as overuse by industry,

T River systems

A Industrial chichen house, with chickens packed into cages

Hut while many new industries are thriving in the urban areas, smaller towns are experiencing economic distress. The economic change from ¿igriculture to manufacturing has caused many small farming towns to shrink or die. People have moved to cities in order to remain employed.

The governments of the United States and Alabama have joined to try to provide aid to smaller communities. There are tax incentives for businesses who open centers of manufacturing in rural communities. The opening of a new highway through the "BLick Belt" region ¿ilso promises to bring new* economic opportunities. The automotive industry, including companies from overseas, has already shown interest in opening plants in the arcii, giving new hope to residents for a boost in dieir economy.

In 1900, most income in Alabama came from growing cotton and textile production. Over Lime, mining, steel, and manufacturing grew to be a major part of the economy. Many of these industries are still in operation and are still important to the economy of Akibama, Today, Alabama's major exports of computer equipment, apparel, and tnmsportation equipment, along with its agricultural exports of meat and feed products, give Alabama's industries a solid place in the global economy.

T River systems

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Technology in Alabama

Alabama has a rich his tor v in aeronautics j

¿md space research. It has long been a center for technological advances in military equipment and space exploration. Two major sites for such advances are the Maxwell Air Force Base and the Marshall Space I'light Center.

In '1910, Wilbur Wright decided to inspect several southern cities with plans to open a temporary civilian flying school. The Wright brodiers hoped to make money from their invention—the airplane—by braining instructor pilots. A group of businessmen in Montgomery offered Wilbur Wright an old cotton plantation for free. Toward die end of

February 1910, Wright opened one of the world's earliest flying schools at the site that would later become Maxwell Air Force Base. It was there that Orville Wright recorded the first powered flight in Montgomery's history.

The first recorded night flight in aviation history occurred at the Alabama field on May 25,191U- In 1918 the site became a repair depot for World War I phines. The depot constructed the first plane ever built in Montgomery in 1918, In November of 1922, the War Department re-designated the depot as Maxwell I'ield, in honor of 2d I t. William C. Maxwell, a native of Atmore, Alabama.

T Wright Brothers sculpture at Maxwell Air Force Base, near Montgomery

T Wright Brothers sculpture at Maxwell Air Force Base, near Montgomery

AL54 Alsihamsi Handbook


In 1940, the installation was converted into a pilot training center. The Maxwell Air Force Base is now home to Air University, a major component of the U. S. Air Force's Air iEducation and Training Command. It is the Air Force's center for professional mi I ¡tarv education.

Alabama's success in flight technology does not stop within Larth's airspace. The George C. Marshuill Space Flight Center, located in Huntsville, Alabama, built the rocket that sent America's first astronaut, Alan B. Shepard, into space. Their first major space flight program was that of the Saturn rockets, which were used to send Neil Armstrong to the moon in 1969.

The Marshall Flight Center is the nation's leader in space transportation, not just exploration. Currently, it houses one of the most important centers for engine research. Marshall's engineering legacy began with German Dr. Wernher von Braun and a team of many scientists and engineers that made the lunar landings possible.

Today, Marshall Flight Center is responsible for major eleme_nts on the Space Shuttle, With its advanced research into rocket technology and flight techniques, Marshall is poised to keep Alabama on the world's technology radar screen.

¿v Rockets at the Marshall Space Center; George C. Marshall Space Flight Center building sign (left)

¿v Rockets at the Marshall Space Center; George C. Marshall Space Flight Center building sign (left)



Volunteering in Alabama

Civic responsibility, or the responsibility to be involved with one's community, is important to the success of that community. Young citizens may not be able to vote, but they can be active citizens in their community. Opportunities for volunteering are many. It is the people who volunteer c¿u'ly and often who make the best and most productive citizens Liter on.

In Alabama, there are many opportunities for young people to get involved with their communities. Children can raise funds or distribute clothing and food to charitable organi-ZEitions such as the Salvation Army. They c¿m volunteer for tutoring of younger children programs or giving companionship prognuns for the aged.

Young Alabamiaris can also help to build houses for others by working for organizations such as Habitat for Humanity. There is alwavs a need for help, even if it is merely to guide someone in need to the right resource for them. One major national force for volun-teerism, which has taken hold in Alabama, is America's Promise.

America's Promise was founded after the I'residents' Summit for America's future, April, 1997, in Philadelphia. Presidents Clinton, Bush, Carter, and I'ord with First Lady Nancy Reag£in representing her husband, challenged the nation to make youth a national priority. Also attending were nearly 30 governors, 100 mayors, 145 community delegations, dozens of prominent business leaders and several thousand concerned citizens.

I heir call to action included a commitment on the part of the nation to fulfill the Five Promises. The Five Promises are five ideas that make for a healthy, happy American chi Id who wil I have a better chance of becoming a productive adult. The first promise is "Caring Adults," the idea that ongoing relationships with parents and mentors are crucial to the support and care of young people. The second promise is "Safe Places/" the idea that young people need a safe place to be at all times during non-school hours. The third promise is "A Healthy Start," the idea that children need good nutrition and exercise to maintain good health.

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