The Diversity of Americans

GUIDE TO READING Main Idea

In addition to its common values and civic unity, the United States benefits from Its rich diversity.

Key Terms migration, patriotism, terrorism

Reading Strategy Identifying Information

As you read, create a web diagram like the one shown here, In which you list as many examples of diversity in the United

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Read to Learn

• How and why do Americans represent diverse cultures?

* What are the common values and civic unity that hold together Americans from diverse racial, ethnic, and religious backgrounds?

TIt lit V if encans in Action

The diversity of the United States has been, and still is. a great strength. In 1888 Henry Cabot Lodge, a member of the U.S. Congress, urged Americans to actively accept Immigrants: "Let every man honor and love the land of his birth and the race from which he springs and keep their memory green. It is a pious and honorable duty. But let us have done with British-Americans and Irish-Americans and German-Americans, and so on, and all be Americans If a man is going to be an American at all let him be so without any qualifying adjectives; and if he is going to be something else, let him drop the word Amer/can from his personal description."

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Immigrants entering the United States at Ellis Island, New York, in the late 1800s

A Nation of Immigrants

On the back of every American coin, you'll find the Latin words R pluribus unwn, meaning "Out of many, one." This phrase reminds us that the many diverse citizens of the United States have joined, together to create a single, strong nation. For all our differences, we are linked by shared values and experiences. More than 292 million people live in the United States today. All of us are descended from families that immigrated at one time or another. Most scholars believe that the first Native Americans arrived here thousands of years ago by crossing over a "land bridge" thai: once connccted Asia and North America.

European Settlers

Until the mid-1900s,, most immigrants came From Europe. The first Europeans to settle permanently in North America arrived from Spain during the 1500s.'1 hey occupied territory in

U.S. immigration, 2002

—1 Africa

V

1_1 Asia

ZZi Australia £ Oceania

I~71 Europe

1 North America

-111 South Amcrica

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Analyzing Graphs

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immigration and naturalization have led to an increasingly diverse American society. What is the percentage of immigrants coming to the U.S. from North America? South America?

what is now Florida, California, and the Southwest, where their influence still lingers.

Beginning in the 1 600s, people from France and England camc to North America. The French settled, primarily in Canada, but they also clustered around the Mississippi River. English immigrants settled mainly along the cast coast of North America* creating the 13 colonies that became the United States. During the late 1600s and the 1700$, immigrants from Germany;, the Netherlands, Ireland, Scotland, and Sweden joined these English settlers.

After the United States gained its inde-pendence5 it became known throughout Europe as a land of promise. The number of immigrants grew from 600,000 in the 1830s to more than 2 million by the 1850s. Between 1S60 and 1890, more than 10 million Europeans—many of them from

Denmark, Norway, and Sweden—streamed into this country.

Another flood of immigrants—about 22 million—reached our shores between 1890 and 1924. Most of them came from southern and eastern Europe, from councries such as Italy* Greece, Poland, and Russia.

Out of Many, One All American coins carry the Latin phrase f pluribus unum. How does this phrase reflect the population of the United States?

20 Chapter 1 Citizenship and Government in a Democracy

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During the past 50 years, immigration From Europe to the United. States has lagged far behind immigration from the rest of the world. Latin America now accounts for the largest share of foreign newcomers, tblLowed by Asia.

African Immigrants

Among the early immigrants to America were some who did not come willingly. Western and central Africans were taken by force from their homes, shipped across the Atlantic Ocean, and sold as slaves in the Caribbean Islands and North and South America. Between 1619 and 1808, before it became illegal to bring enslaved persons into the United States, some 500,000 were brought to the country in this way. Most African Americans today are descendants of enslaved persons. Others are immigrants from various countries in Africa and the Caribbean region.

3£332SBflS9 summarizing When did the largest group of European immigrants come to the United States?

A Diverse Population

The American population is extraordinarily diverse in terms of ethnic backgrounds. Many Americans today do not identify themselves as members of a single ethnic group. However, whites of European descent number more than 211 million. There are about 35 million African Americansj over 11 million Asians and Pacific Islanders, and almost 2.5 million Native Americans. More than 35 million people are Hispanics—people of any race who trace their ancestry to the Spanish-speaking countries of the Western Hemisphere.

Our ethnic diversity is matched by religious diversity. Christians are in the majority, with more than 158 million practicing

Born in Thailand, Mai Payia Vang was just three years old when she moved to the United Slates. Her family moved to Milwaukee. Wisconsin, in search of greater security, safety, and opportunity. "My father didn't want us to suffer like he did," Vang says. "There was a lot of war. Our lives were at risk. He said there was a chance for a better life here."

The Vangs' life did improve after they moved—dramatically; but that doesn't mean I hey didn't struggle. Learning to speak English, for example, was one of the biggest obstacles Vang had to ovcrcomc. When she was in middle school and having trouble reading. Vang had a sudden realization: "I thought that if I had a tutor who could help mc out, I could do better.r

Vang started a community-wide tutoring program. Dubbed ElcMENTORing. the idea is to get high school students to help younger children improve their reading.

Vang created EleMENTORing with the help of her local YMCA. where she volunteers. If you'd like to find out more about YMCA service learning programs, click on their Web site at www."YMCA.net

Mai Payia Vang from Wisconsin

Mai Payia Vang from Wisconsin

some form of Christianity. Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, and many other religious groups also worship freely; and those who don't practice any religion are equally at home here.

Chapter 1 Citizenship and Government in a Democracy 21

Displaying Patriotism Three New York City firefighters raise the American flag amid the rubble of the World Trade Center. Students at Yale Headstart Center in Mississippi show their support for America. In what ways do Americans display their patriotism?

As people with different beliefs and backgrounds have made lives for themselves in the United States, many of their "old. country" traditions have become part of the American culture.The American culture is a rich blend of varied influences.

{¿imj^mSI Concluding How would you describe today's American culture?

A Growing and Changing Population

'JLTie growth of America's population is not due entirely to immigration. It also increased naturally as a result of Americans having many children. For example, between 1830 and 1930, the nation's population grew from about 12 million people to about 120 million people. Fewer than 40 million of those new .Americans were immigrants.

Over the years* the American population has changed in many ways. In the

pic, people began moving from rural areas to cities. They started working in factories rather than on farms. In the past few decades, manufacturing has lost ground to what we call "the service economy," More and more Americans now earn a living by providing services practicing law or medicine, clerking in stores, programming computers, teaching, and so forth. In addition, there are more women and at-home workers in the labor force than ever before.

The places where we live are changing too. Tor example, shortly after the Civil War, African Americans* freed from slavery, headed for the cities seeking jobs and a new way of life. The result was a migration-^ or the mass movement, of African Americans from the South to che North. For much of our history, the Northeast was the most populous part of che country. Today, the Soutii claims that distinction, and the population there and in the West is growing faster than in any other region.

The population is changing in other ways as well. For example, the average age of citizens is climbing upward as people live longer and have fewer children. Record numbers of Americans are now earning college and graduate degrees.

Hispanic Americans are the fastest-growing ethnic group. Indeed, if current patterns continue, Hispanics and other minority groups, taken as a whole, will soon be in the majority.

Summarizing In what ways is the American population changing?

22 Chapter 1 Citizenship and Government in a Democracy

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Unity Among Citizens

'llicrc arc various sources of American unity. One very important source of American unity is a common chic and political heritage based upon the country's founding documents, such as the Declaration of independence, the U.S. Constitution of 1787, and the Rill of Rights of 1791, American ideals of individual rights to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" are in these founding documents. So are such values as popular sovereignty (government by consent of the governed), equal justice under law, and majority rule through the people's representatives in government, 'ilicse representatives are accountable to the people through fair, free, and regular elections in which citizens have chc right to participate. There is majority rule in government, but the majority is limited by the higher law of the people's Constitution to protect equally the rights of everyone as individuals in the political system.

A second significant source is a single language, English, which generally is accepted as the primary means of communication in education, government, and business. Americans are free to speak any language. However, the community of citizens in the United States is strengthened by the common and public use of one language, which can be used by diverse groups of Americans to communicate freely with one another.

As Americans, we demonstrate our patriotism—love for one's country—in many ways. We fly the flag proudly, sing the national anthem, and recite the Pledge of xAllegiance. We follow the nation's laws and participate in civic life, We stand together and fight bravely in times of trouble.

Consider the events of September 11, 2001. On that day, suicide hijackers launched devastating attacks on New York City and Washington, D,C, These were acts of terrorism—the use of violence by-groups against civilians to achieve a political goal. Americans, however, responded with courage and unity.We joined together to help people in need, repair the damage, and reaffirm our commitment to freedom.

{^SiSSSDil Summarizing What are two sources of American unity?

Checking for Understanding

1. Key Terms In a paragraph compare the terms patriotism and terrorism. Explain how thoy relate Lo each oilier.

Critical Thinking

4. Evaluating information What do you think is the most important source of American unity? Explain your answer.

5. Sequencing Information On a time line similar to the one below, show when various ethnic groups immigra led lo Lhe United States.

Analyzing Visuals

6. Identify Review Lhe graph on page 20 that shows immigration to the Unitod Statos. Ahout how many immigrants came Lo lhe United States between 1981 and 1990?

Checking for Understanding

1. Key Terms In a paragraph compare the terms patriotism and terrorism. Explain how thoy relate Lo each oilier.

Reviewing Main Ideas

2. Identify Who wore tho first im migrants lo what is now Lhe United States?

3. Describe What immigrants did not corno willingly to tho Unitod Slates?

Critical Thinking

4. Evaluating information What do you think is the most important source of American unity? Explain your answer.

5. Sequencing Information On a time line similar to the one below, show when various ethnic groups immigra led lo Lhe United States.

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Analyzing Visuals

6. Identify Review Lhe graph on page 20 that shows immigration to the Unitod Statos. Ahout how many immigrants came Lo lhe United States between 1981 and 1990?

it BE AN ACTIVE CITIZEN^

7. Research Choose an ethnic or religious group in your cornrnu nily. Using newspapers, TV. or other sources of information, list examples of the group's contribution lo life in your communiLy.

Assessment & Activities

Seviei* in learn

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Section 2

• According to the U.S. Constitution, people can become American citizens by birth and through nationalization.

■ Millions of illegal aliens live in the United States. Legal aliens have entered the country legally.

Using Your Foldables Study Organizer

Re vie v/ what you have learned by noting the main ideas you have written on your foldable. Next to each main idea, write some supporting facts and your opinions.

Reviewing Key Terms

Write the chapter key term that matches each definition below.

1. a display of love for one's country

2. the study of the rights and duties of citizens

3. a plan for making and spending money

4. noncitizens living in a nation

5. people who move permanently to a new country

6. a government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf

7. a legal process to obtain citizenship

8. to send an alien or immigrant back to his or her own country

9. the use of violence against civilians to achieve a political goal the course of government action to achieve community goals

Reviewing Main Ideas

11. What three levels of government exist in the United States, and which is the highest?

12. What are the primary functions of government?

13. In what ways can a person become a citizen of the United States?

14. What political rights do legal aliens in the United States not have?

15. After whites of European descent, what are the two largest ethnic groups in the United States?

ie. How did most African American immigrants differ from other racial or ethnic groups who came to the United States before 1808?

17. What is the USCIS? What is the role of the USCIS during the naturalization process?

18. What does it mean to say the United States has a * service economy"? In what other ways has the American labor force changed?

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Section 1

• People need governments to make and enforce laws and to help us meet our needs.

■ Three main levels of government exist in the United States.

Section 3

■ The United States is a land of immigrants. Americans have a common civic and political heritage, and a single language.

Critical Thinking

19. Making Predictions What do you think would happen to the United States if all immigration stopped?

20. Categorizing Information On a chart like the one below, write as many examples of the functions of government as possible.

Furiclions ol Government

Order and Security

Public Services

Guiding Community

21. Identifying the Main Idea Read the text under the main head "A Diverse Population'' on pages 21 and 22. Identify the main idea of the paragraphs.

civics.

Uhume

Self-Check Quiz Visit the Civics Today Web site at c.corr and click on Self-Check Quizzes— Chapter 1 to proparn for the chapter test.

* CITIZENSHIP COOPERATIVE ACTIVITY +

24. Form a group of three to four students and research your community's ethnic, racial, and religious makeup. Create circle graphs that show the ethnic distribution and the religious distribution in your community.

m Technology Activity

25. Log on to the Internet and go to www.us_cjs.fiOY for the home page of the USCIS. Rndthe "Naturalization Self-Test. Answer at least 20 questions on the self-test and check your answers. How did you do?

Economics Activity

22. The South and the West are the fastest-growing areas in the United States. What economic effect does that have on other parts of the United States?

Analyzing Visuals

23. Study the political cartoon below. What are these wealthy American citizens saying to newly arrived immigrants? How do you suppose these wealthy men came to be Americans?

Test Practice

Directions: Choose the ¿>esf answer to complete the following statement.

A person may become a citizen of the United States by all of the following ways EXCEPT

A through naturalization. B by being born in the United States. C by being born in American territory outside the United States. D by being born to a foreign diplomat working in the United States.

Test-Taking Tip

Read the question carefully. You are looking for the answer choice that does NOT fit with the question.

Chapter 1 Citizenship and Government in a Democracy 25

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