Critical Thinking

Identifying the Main Idea 18

Analyzing Primary Sources 43

Understanding the Parts of a Map ... 88

Reading a Diagram 131

Making Comparisons 145

Reading a Bar Graph 205

Distinguishing Fact From

Opinion 2.51

Making Infcrenccs 319

Recognizing Bias 328

Reading a Circle Graph 415

Predicting Consequences 443

Reading a Line (iraph 457

Making Generalizations 490

Writing a Journal 547

Understanding Cause and liffect — 605 Reading a Time line 616


Taking Notes 102

Reading an Election Map 170

Interpreting a Political Cartoon ... 231

Analyzing News Media 269

Using Library Resources 296

Ma lung Decisions 359

Problem Solving 379

Reading a Time Zone Map 528


Evaluating a Web Site 388

Using a Computerized Card

Catalog 470

Developing Multimedia

Presentations 514

Building a Database 571

Should the Government Be Allowed to Use Electronic Surveillance? 13

Should There Re Term limits for Members of Congress? 156

Should die lilectoral College

Be Abolished? 245

Should Students Have to Wear School

Uniforms? 291

Should Americans Be Permitted to Vote Online? 394

Should the Government Create Personal Retirement Accounts? ... 495

Should Consumers Be Able to

Download Internet Music? 507

Should the President Have

Fast-Track Trade Power? 581

Students wearing school unif orms

AL24 Table of Contents

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Illuminated manuscript, Middle Ages

Economics and You k


The Magna Carta 659

The Mayflower Compact 660

The Federalist, No, 10 660

Washington's Farewell Address 661

The Star-Spangled Banner 661

The Monroe Doctrine 662

Memorial ol'the Cherokee Nation ... 662

The Scncca Falls Declaration 663

The Emancipation Proclamation----664

The Gettysburg Address 665

I Will Fight No More 666

The Pledge of Allegiance 666

The American's Creed 667

The Fourteen Points 667

Brotun v. Board of Education 668

John F Kennedy's Inaugural

Address 669

T Have a Dream 670

Customs Duties 40

Private Property 99

Nonrenewable Resources 121

Tax Credits 155

Bankruptcy 195

Public Debt 298

Underground Economy 345

Direct Expenditures 367

Rain Forest Trade-Offs 411

Microeconomics and

Macroeconomics 419

Public Disclosure 442

Buyer's Market 451

Business Philanthropy 493

Limited Role of Government 506

Debit Cards 537

Principles o 1'Taxation 546

Exchange Rates 580

Trademarks 613

The Tinkers show their armbands.

Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District 108

Marbury v. Madison 211

Hazelzvood School District v. Kuhhne&r 263

Mapp v.Ohio 301

Gideon v. Wdinwrigkt 374

Gibbons v. Ogden 433

McCuUoch v. Maryland 519

Scon v. Sandford 594

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Charts and Graphs

Functions of Govcrnmcnl 8

Fundamental Principles of American

Democracy 11

Oath of Allegiance to the United States ... 15

Sources of American Law 30

The English Colonies 34

Weaknesses of the Articles of

Confederation 41

Comparing Governments 84

Amending the Constitution

Foundations of Our Right« and

Freedoms 00

Checks and Balances 01

Federal and Slale Powers 92

The First Amendment 99

Rights of lhe Accused 104

Constitutional Amendments 11 27 ,... 110 Landmark Acts of lhe Civil Rights

Movement 114

Citizens" Duties and Responsibilities ... 122

American Volunteers in Action 129

Percentage of Adults Active in

Volunteer Work 129

How Can You Volunteer? 129

Why Should You Volunteer? 129

The Recycling Process 131

Standing Committees 142

Powers of Congress 149

Profile of the 108th Congress 158

How a Bill Becomes Law 160

Presidential Succession 168

Powers and Duties of ihe President ,,,, 172 The Executive Office of lhe

President (EOP) 180

Cabinet Departments 183

United States Court System 197

Landmark Decisions of the

Supreme Court 207

State and Local Laws Overturned by Selected Supreme Courts 213

Organization of Political Parties 223

Leading Third-Parly Presidential

Candidates 228

2000 Presidential Election

(Popular Vote) 233

Presidential Elections, 1976-2000 243

Funding Congressional Campaigns,

1997-2000 249

Gallup Poll: Presidential Job

Approval, 1953-2003 260

Americans' Use of Mass Media 267

Types of Propaganda Techniques 274

Division of Slate and Federal Powers ... 284 Powers and Duties of the Governor 294

State Judicial System 298

Strong-Mayor and Weak-Mayor

Systems 308

City Governments 309

Organization of County Government ... 314 Funding Elementary and Secondary

Education 3.30

Community Policing 3.32

The Crime Clock 339

Development of Legal Systems 345

Constitutional Rights of the Accused ,,. 353

Miranda Warning 355

Violent Crime Victims 361

Civil Case Procedure 366

U.S. Regional Crime Rates in 2000 ____369

Procedure in a Criminal Case 371

Computer Access Among School-Age

Children, 2000 391

Internet Host Sites 4-01

AL26 Table of Contents

Choices All Societies Face 408

Cost-Benefit Analysis 413

Persona] Consumer Spending in the United Sin US; 2000 415

Computing GDP 426

The Circular Flow of Economic

Activity 429

An Individual Buyer's Demand 449

Market Demand 450

A Change in Demand 453

Demand for Cassettes 459

Software House Supply 463

Market Supply 464

A Change in Supply 468

The Price Adjustment Process 472

Forms of Business Organization 481

Corporate Chain of Cotrim and 484

Federal Regulatory Agencies 504

The Business Cycle 509

Unemployment and the Business

Cycle 511

Education and Income 516

Poverty Guidelines, 2002 518

Per Capita GDP of Eight Nations 521

Features of U.S. Currency 526

Structure of the Federal Reserve

SysLcm 530

Monetary Policy and Interest Rates 532 The Federal Budget, Fiscal Year

2003 544

State and JLocal Government

Revenues and Expenditures 550

The Deficit and the Debt 555

The North American Free Trade

Agreement (NAFTA) 568

Social Statistics for Selected Nations ... 579 Two Forms of Democracy 590

Comparing Au dioritariau and

Democratic Systems 596

Population Living Under Various

Types of Government 602

Hourly Compensation Costs, 2000 611 Organization of the United Nations----618


US. Immigration, 2002 20

Ratifying the Constitution 57

T.and Area of the United States, 1787 ... 88

Congressional Apportionment,

Selected Years 140

Presidential Election, 2000 170

Federal Judicial Circuits and Districts 193

Levels of Government 313

Right-to-Work, State by State 487


U.S. Time Zones 528

Members of the European Union 567

Tlie North American Free Trade

Agreement (NAFTA) 568

Per Capital GDP, Selected Nations----573

Africa: Governments by Type 591

Asia: Governments by Type 600

Projected Water Use, 2025 614

Table of Contents AL27

Previewing Your Textbook

Your textbook has been organized to help you learn about the functions of government and your role as a citizen. Before you start reading, though, here's a road map to help you understand what you will encounter in the pages of this textbook.


Your textbook is divided into 8 units. Each unit begins with two pages of information to help you begin your study of the unit.

Unit Title

The Unit Title tells you the topic discussed in the unit you are about to read ?

. Foundati of Am

Why It Matters

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Why It Matters

Each unit begins with Why It Matters. This is a short summary about what you will study in the unit and why it is important c-i. (ii>i*r»J O!:**.*» ^

Be An Active Citizen


Suggests ways that you can become an active Photographs shows you real people and places participant in the democratic process. involved in the business of government.

Previewing Your Textbook


Each unit in Civics Today is made up of chapters. Each chapter starts by providing you v-vith background information to help you get the most out of Lhe chapter.

Chapter Title The chapter title tells you the main topic you will be reading about

Citizenship and You

Gtizenship and You tells you why events you will study are important to you.

Web Site

Gvics Online directs you to the Internet where you can find more information, activities, and self-quizzes.

Citizenship and Governmei) c in a Democracy


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Use the Fofdabies Study Organizer to take notes as you read.

Visuals * Photographs show democracy in action.


A section is a division, or pari, of the chapter. The first page oi the section, the section opener, helps you set a purpose tor reading.

Main Idea

The Main idea of this section is introduced here. Below it are important terms you will encounter as you read the section.

Reading Strategy

Completing the Reading Strategy activity will help you organize the in form a tion as you read the section.

Read to Learn Keep the Read to Learn questions in mind as you read the section. If you can answer them, you have understood what you have read.


Main Idea

Democrrtic governments perfomi necessary tunc-tions so citizens can live together peacefully.


Main Idea

Democrrtic governments perfomi necessary tunc-tions so citizens can live together peacefully.

Key Twins civics, citizen, government, public policy, budget, dictatorship, denvjersey, direct democracy, epreseiïtatlve mocracy. majority rule

Rßarilig Strnteuy Organiaag Inf omûtk*i Creates chart like tue one below. Then list the levels or government a function of each. and an example ot the level and function in the correct columns.

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