Water Pollution Abatement

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Better removal of pollutants from wastewater effluents was originally mandated by the federal government in the Water Pollution Control Act of 1970 (P.L. 92-500). Since then the performance requirements for the various treatment technologies have been raised to new and higher standards with additional legislation aimed at regulating the amounts of toxic and hazardous substances discharged as effluents. Increased legal and enforcement efforts by various governmental agencies to define toxic and hazardous substances give evidence of the demands that will be placed on pollution technology in the future. The trend in effluent standards is definitely away from the broad, nonspecific parameters (such as chemical oxygen demand or biochemical oxygen demand) and towards limits on specific chemical compounds.

The problems of handling a liquid waste effluent are considerably more complex than those of handling a waste gas effluent. The waste liquid may contain dissolved gases or dissolved solids, or it may be a slurry in either concentrated or dilute form. Because of this complexity, priority should first be given to the possibility of recovering part or all of the waste products for reuse or sale. Frequently, money can be saved by installing recovery facilities rather than more expensive waste-treatment equipment. If product recovery is not capable of solving a given waste-disposal problem, waste treatment must be used. One of the functions of the design engineer then is to decide which treatment process, or combination of processes, will best perform the necessary task of cleaning up the wastewater effluent involved. This treatment can be either physical, chemical, or biological in nature, depending upon the type of waste involved and the amount of removal necessary.

PHYSICAL TREATMENT. The first step in any wastewater treatment process is to remove large floating or suspended particles by sources. This is usually followed by sedimentation or gravity settling. Where sufficient land area is available, earthen basins are sometimes used to remove settleable solids from dilute wastewater. Otherwise, circular clarifiers with rotating sludge scrapers or rectangular clarifiers with continuous chain sludge scrapers are used. These units permit removal of settled sludge from the floor of the clarifiers and scum removal from the surface. Numerous options for improving the operation of clarifiers are presently available.

Sludge from primary or secondary treatment that has been initially concentrated in a clarifier or thickener can be further concentrated by vacuum filtration or centrifugation. The importance of first concentrating a thin slurry by clarifier or thickener action needs to be recognized. For example, concentrating the sludge from 5 to 10 percent solids before centrifuging can result in a 250 percent increase in solids recovery for the same power input to the centrifuge.

Solid-liquid separation by flotation may be achieved by gravity alone or induced by dissolved-air or vacuum techniques. The mechanisms and driving forces are similar to those found in sedimentation, but the separation rate and solids concentration can be greater in some cases.

Adsorption processes, and in particular those using activated carbon, are also finding increased use in wastewater treatment for removal of refractory organics, toxic substances, and color. The primary driving forces for adsorption are a combination of (1) the hydrophobic nature of the dissolved organics in the wastewater and (2) the affinity of the organics to the solid adsorbent. The latter is due to a combination of electrostatic attraction, physical adsorption, and chemical adsorption. Operational arrangements of the adsorption beds are similar to those described for gaseous adsorption.

Three different membrane processes, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis are receiving increased interest in pollution-control applications as end-of-pipe treatment and for inplant recovery systems. There is no sharp distinction between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis. In the former, the separation is based primarily on the size of the solute molecule which, depending upon the particular membrane porosity, can range from about 2 to 10,000 millimicrons. In the reverse-osmosis process, the size of the solute molecule is not the sole basis for the degree of removal, since other characteristics of the solute such as hydrogen-bonding and valency affect the membrane selectivity. In contrast to these two membrane processes, electrodialysis employs the removal of the solute (with some small amount of accompanying water) from solution rather than the removal of the solvent. The other major distinction is that only ionic species are removed. The advantages due to electrodialysis are primarily due to these distinctions.

chemical treatment. In wastewater treatment, chemical methods are generally used to remove colloidal matter, color, odors, acids, alkalies, heavy metals, and oil. Such treatment is considered as a means of stream upgrading by coagulation, emulsion breaking, precipitation, or neutralization.

Coagulation is a process that removes colloids from water by the addition of chemicals. The chemicals upset the stability of the system by neutralizing the colloid charge. Additives commonly used introduce a large multivalent cation such as Al + 3 (from alum) or Fe+3 (from ferric chloride). Emulsion breaking is similar to coagulation. The emulsions are generally broken with combination of acidic reagents and polyelectrolytes. The common ion effect can also be useful in wastewater treatment. In this case an unwanted salt is removed from solution by adding a second soluble salt to increase one of the ion concentrations. Coagulant aids may then be needed to remove the precipitate.

One method for treating acid and alkaline waste products is by neutralization with lime or sulfuric acid (other available materials may also be suitable). Even though this treatment method may change the pH of the waste stream to the desired level, it does not remove the sulfate, chloride, or other ions. Therefore, the possibility of recovering the acid or alkali by distillation, concentration, or in the form of a useful salt should always be considered before neutralization or dilution methods are adopted.

Chemical oxidation is frequently another tool in wastewater treatment. Chemical oxidants in wide use today are chlorine, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide. The historical use of chlorine and ozone has been in the disinfection of water and wastewater. All three oxidizers are, however, receiving increased attention for removing organic materials from wastewaters that are resistant to biological or other treatment processes. The destruction of cyanide and phenols by chlorine oxidation is well known in waste-treatment technology. However, the use of chlorine for such applications has come under intense scrutiny because of the uncertainty in establishing and predicting the products of the chlorine oxidation reactions and their relative toxicity. Ozone, on the other hand, with only a short half-life is found to be effective in many applications for color removal, disinfection, taste and odor removal, iron and manganese removal, and in the oxidation of many complex inorganics, including lindane, aldrin, surfactants, cyanides, phenols, and organo-metal complexes. With the latter, the metal ion is released and can be removed by precipitation.

The need for chemical reduction of wastewaters occurs less often. The most common reducing agents are ferrous chloride or sulfate which may be obtained from a variety of sources.

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT. In the presence of the ordinary bacteria found in water, many organic materials will oxidize to form carbon dioxide, water, sulfates, and similar materials. This process consumes the oxygen dissolved in the water and may cause a depletion of dissolved oxygen. A measure of the ability of a waste component to consume the oxygen dissolved in water is known as the biochemical oxygen demand. The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of a waste stream is often the primary factor that determines its importance as a pollutant. The biochemical oxygen demand of sewage, sewage effluents, polluted waters, or industrial wastes is the oxygen, reported as parts per million, consumed during a set period of time by bacterial action on the decomposable organic matter.

One of the more common biological wastewater treatment procedures today involves the use of concentrated masses of microorganisms to break down organic matter, resulting in the stabilization of organic wastes. These organisms are broadly classified as aerobic, anaerobic, and aerobic-anaerobic facultative. Aerobic organisms. require molecular oxygen for metabolism, anaerobic organisms derive energy from organic compounds and function in the absence of oxygen, while facultative organisms may function in either an aerobic or anaerobic environment.

Basically, the aerobic biological processes involve either the activated sludge process or the fixed-film process. The activated sludge process is a continuous system in which aerobic biological growths are mixed with wastewater and the resulting excess flocculated suspension separated by gravity clarification or air flotation. The predominant fixed-film process has, in the past, been the conventional trickling filter. In this /process, wastewater trickles over a biological film fixed to an inert medium. Bacterial action in the presence of oxygen breaks down the organic pollutants in the wastewater. (An attempt to improve on the biological efficiency of the fixed-film process has resulted in the development of a useful rotating disk biological contactor.) A comparison of biological loading and area requirements for various aerobic biological processes is shown in Table 10.

Many organic industrial wastes (including those from food processing, meat packing, pulp and paper, refining, leather tanning, textiles, organic chemicals, and petrochemicals) are amenable to biological treatment; however, a fair number may prove to be refractory, i.e., nonbiodegradable. Thus, although the BOD removal may be excellent, the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) may be low. Process evaluation prior to system design should center on characterization of the waste stream, particularly to determine the presence of inhibitory or toxic components relative to biological treatment, and the establishment of pollutant removal rates, oxygen requirements, nutrient requirements (nitrogen and phosphorus), sludge production, and solids settleability.

Anaerobic treatment is important in the disposal of municipal wastes but has not been widely used on industrial wastes. It has found some use in reducing highly concentrated BOD wastes, particularly in the food and beverage industries as a pretreatment or roughing technique. However, compared to

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