Any economist who advises presidents or other elected leaders knows that his or her recommendations are not always heeded. Frustrating as this can be. it is easy to understand. The process by which economic policy is made differs in many ways from the idealized policy process assumed in economics textbooks.
Throughout this text, whenever we discuss economic policy, we often focus on one question: What i> the best policy for the government to pursue? We act as if policy were set by a benevolent king. Once the king figures out the right policy, he has no trouble putting his ideas into action
In the real world, figuring out the right policy is only part of a leader's job, sometimes the easiest part. After a president hears from his economic advisers about what policy is best frum their perspective, he turns to other advisers for related input. Flis communications advisers will tell him how best to explain the proposed policy to the public, and they will try to anticipate any misunderstand-
ñ i ings th.it might «irise to make the challenge more difficult. His press advisers will tell him how the news media will report on his proposal and what opinions will likely be expressed on the nation's editorial pages. His legislative affairs advisors will tell him how Congress will view the proposal, what amendments members of Congress will suggest, and the likelihood that Congress will pass some version of the president's proposal into law. His political advisers will tell him which groups will organize to support or oppose the proposed policy, how this propt>sal will affect his standing among different groups in the electorate, and whether it will affect support for any of the president's other policy initiatives. After hearing and weighing all this advice, the president then decides how to proceed.
Making economic policy in a representative demsvracv is a messy affair—and there are often good reasons presidents (and other politicians) do not advance the policies that economists advocate. Economists offer crucial input into the policy process, but their advice is only one ingredient of a complex recipe.
QUICK QUIZ Give an exarri>lo of a poi'rtivs tt«Um«nt and an oxarnplo of a normativ« »laternt-nt that iomfl-ow r«lM6* to your daily lif«. • Nam« thr«e partS of gcvamment that regula'ly rely on advlce from econorrstv
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